What Is Gluconolactone? The Full 101 On This Skin Care Ingredient
Skin care acids can be difficult to understand. Not to mention, slathering acid all over your face is pretty intimidating, too. But the truth is, incorporating the right acids into your skin care routine can truly transform your complexion. Sloughing off dead skin will not only give you an overall brighter complexion, but. it can even help your makeup apply better, too. Which makes acids an overall win in the skin care category.
And while there are popular options like hyaluronic (super hydrating) and salicylic (bye, bye acne), there's a lesser-known and gentler acid that is game-changer since it sheds dead skin cells without irritation. Enter: gluconolactone. Sure, it's nearly impossible to pronounce, but this gentle exfoliator is a lot more tolerable than some of its more popular counterparts. Keep reading to learn more.
What is it?
Gluconolactone is a polyhydroxy acid (PHA) that derives from gluconic acid. And according to double board-certified dermatologist Brendan Camp, M.D., it naturally occurs in fruit, honey, and wine. "Polyhydroxy means the chemical structure of gluconolactone contains multiple hydroxyl groups, which are pairings of oxygen and hydrogen atoms," he explains. This is what makes this group of acids, including gluconolactone, different from AHAs and BHAs like glycolic lactic acid. But just like these popular acids, gluconolactone is essentially an exfoliator but believed to be a gentler form.
"Because PHA's have a larger molecular structure than AHAs and BHAs, it is thought that they do not penetrate the skin as much, making them less irritating and more tolerable," Camp suggests. So, if you're one who finds traditional exfoliators irritating, you may want to add this hard-to-pronounce ingredient to your skin care regimen.
What is it most commonly used for?
Now that we know what gluconolactone is, let's talk about what it does. Like all exfoliators, this acid is most often used to slough off dead skin. "Exfoliants aid in the process of removing dead cells from the skin surface and improve texture and tone," Camp says. And since PHAs are known for penetrating less, irritated and inflamed skin aren't really a concern here. One of the reasons it is a gentle exfoliator is because it's a humectant. This means "it attracts water molecules to hydrate the skin, and an antioxidant that helps to neutralize free radicals," Camp says. An exfoliator that actually hydrates my skin instead of turning it into sandpaper? Yes, please.
What are the benefits?
There's so much to love about this acid. Keep reading to learn more:
Gets rid of dead skin.
"Exfoliants help break apart and flush away dead cells that sit on the surface of the skin," says Camp. But since gluconolactone is a gentle exfoliant, it's usually well tolerated by most skin types. Camp says it is generally safe for sensitive skin. And since it sloughs off dead skin, this type of acid gives skin an overall better texture and tone.
Acts as an antioxidant.
Since gluconolactone has antioxidant properties, it does offer various skin benefits that can strengthen and protect the skin barrier. Camp says this exfoliating ingredient can hunt for free radicals and even fight against UV rays and pollution.
Hydrates dry skin.
Because gluconolactone is a humectant, it draws water into the skin. Camp explains that this process is "by drawing water molecules from the environment or deeper layers of the skin." So, moisture stays locked in instead of seeping out. This, too, is the reason that PHAs are less irritating than AHAs and BHAs.
Helps heal broken skin.
Board-certified dermatologist and founder of MMSkincare Ellen Marmur says gluconolactone has healing powers and antimicrobial properties that make it a go-to for skin after procedures. She also suggests using this acid to treat acne.
Are there any side effects?
Generally, this gentle acid has little to no side effects. However, since gluconolactone is, indeed, an acid, you'll want to test out the ingredient on a small area of skin to check for sensitivities. This is especially true if you have existing skin conditions like rosacea, psoriasis, or eczema. Although mild redness and dryness aren't uncommon when using acids, if you have any burning, itching, or inflammation, you should contact your dermatologist immediately.
Acids come in all varieties—not just of the burn-your-face-off kind they tend to be famous for. Gluconolactone is the perfect example of that. It can buff skin while keeping it plump and supple.
Andrea Jordan is a beauty and lifestyle freelance writer covering topics from hair and skincare to family and home. She received her bachelor's in Magazine Journalism from Temple University and you can find her work at top publications like InStyle, PopSugar, StyleCaster, Business Insider, PureWow and OprahMag. When she's not writing, you can find Andrea tackling new recipes in the kitchen or babysitting one of her many nieces and nephews. She currently resides in New Jersey with her husband and cat, Silas.