What Is Cetearyl Alcohol? We Decode This Misunderstood Ingredient
As much as we love skin care products, deciphering ingredient labels can get super confusing. Case in point: Cetearyl alcohol, also known as cetostearyl alcohol, is frequently found in "alcohol-free" products. Wait...what?
Understandably, this can feel like a personal stab to your skin care-loving heart. Don't be so quick to toss that product, though. Cetearyl alcohol is a commonly misunderstood ingredient—and it's not as bad as you might think.
What is cetearyl alcohol?
Cetearyl alcohol is a waxy, white substance that's solid at room temperature. It naturally comes from vegetable oils—including coconut, palm, and soy oil—but it can also be made in a lab for use in personal products. You can find it in products like lotions, creams, and shampoos, says Loretta Ciraldo, M.D., FAAD.
Chemically speaking, cetearyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol. It's made of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol, two fatty alcohols also used in skin care. On ingredient labels, cetearyl alcohol is sometimes listed as cetostearyl alcohol, cetyl/stearyl alcohol, or C16-18 alcohol.
Is cetearyl alcohol drying?
With a name like cetearyl alcohol, it's easy to assume the ingredient has a drying and irritating effect. But according to board-certified dermatologist Fayne Frey, M.D., FAAD, founder of FryFace, not all alcohols are equal. There are many types of alcohols with different (and nondrying) properties.
"By definition, an alcohol is a general term for an organic compound with an oxygen atom [attached] to hydrogen atom," explains Frey. In the chemistry world, this is called a hydroxyl group (-OH). Thus, as long as a compound has a hydroxyl group, it's called an alcohol.
When most of us think of "alcohol," we're actually thinking of one type: simple alcohols. These are thin, water-like substances that can dissolve fats and lipids, says Frey. They can also irritate the skin at high concentrations, which is why many folks avoid products containing alcohol. "Examples of simple alcohols include ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, [also known as] rubbing alcohol," notes Frey.
And then there's fatty alcohols, which have more complex chemical structures than simple alcohols. This structural difference results in totally different properties. Fatty alcohols are usually oily and waxy, not drying, and commonly used as emulsifiers, says Frey. Cetearyl alcohol is one of those alcohols.
So, about that "alcohol-free" label. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "alcohol-free" refers to the lack of ethyl alcohol—not alcohol in general. Fatty alcohols (like cetearyl alcohol) are fair game.
What is cetearyl alcohol used for in skin care?
On skin care labels, cetearyl alcohol is often listed as an "inactive ingredient." That's because it usually doesn't help a product's therapeutic effects on the skin. Instead, it's used to enhance the formulation of a product. Here's how:
1. It stops ingredients from separating.
A skin care product is essentially a mixture of multiple ingredients. Cetearyl alcohol helps those ingredients stay mixed, thanks to its emulsifying properties. This is key for keeping the formula stable and effective.
According to Frey, most skin care products on the market are made of water and oily ingredients. (These oily ingredients function as emollients, fragrances, and other purposes.) Cetearyl alcohol stops the water and oils from separating, which maintains the composition of the product.
2. It helps products apply evenly.
To be effective, a product should have a consistent formula. Otherwise, the active ingredients will spread unevenly—which defeats the purpose of using product to begin with. Cetearyl alcohol prevents this by keeping the ingredients together, like a neat and tidy package.
3. It also thickens products.
Due to its oily consistency, cetearyl alcohol creates "a smoother, creamier texture to make products more cosmetically appealing," says Ciraldo. Think velvety, hydrating moisturizers and luscious foaming cleansers. Its thickening action also makes it easier to spread on the skin, further enhancing even application. (After all, there's nothing more disappointing than trying to work with a runny, watery formula.)
4. It has moisturizing properties.
Cetearyl alcohol is also an emollient, which means it can make the skin look and feel softer, says Frey. It works by filling in cracks and uneven surfaces—the culprits behind dry skin. Even then, cetearyl alcohol isn't used in skin care products for this reason. It's kind of like an extra perk that proves just how diverse alcohols can be.
Are there any side effects?
Cetearyl alcohol is considered to be very safe, says Ciraldo. The FDA has even approved it as a food additive, along with other fatty alcohols like lauryl alcohol and cetyl alcohol.
Yet, it is possible to have an allergic reaction. This risk in higher in people who have eczema, as they have a compromised skin barrier, and who often use multiple topical medicines. In fact, an article from the 1980s states that about 1% of people with eczema are allergic to cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, or a mixture of both—cetearyl alcohol. A 2007 article also reported five cases of allergic contact dermatitis due to cetearyl alcohol.
Who shouldn't use it?
If you know you're allergic to cetyl, stearyl, or cetearyl alcohol, avoid any products containing these ingredients. It's also best to use caution if you have generally sensitive skin. In this case, do a patch test first, just like you would with any new product.
Cetearyl alcohol allergies are extremely rare, though. If you develop irritation or swelling after using a product with cetearyl alcohol, consider if it was caused by another ingredient. When in doubt, talk to your dermatologist.
If you'd like to avoid drying alcohols, keep an eye out for ingredients like ethyl alcohol, denatured alcohol, or simply "alcohol." Don't worry about cetearyl alcohol, though. Thanks to its emulsifying and emollient properties, the ingredient helps formulas stay consistent, thick, and creamy. It's also recognized as nontoxic and safe for use in skin care.
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