Hydrogen Peroxide For Acne: Is It Safe To Put On Your Skin? Derms Explain
When it comes to hydrogen peroxide, images of removing stains and the occasional scraped knee may come to mind. It's a household staple of sorts, perhaps the most versatile solution in your medicine cabinet. Some even say it carries weight in the beauty space: Anecdotally, it's gained quite the reputation for quickly clearing away pesky pimples.
Using hydrogen peroxide for acne might seem like the do-it-all solution you can snag at your local drugstore, but is it really safe to put on your skin? Well, not so much. Here's what derms have to say on the matter.
What is hydrogen peroxide, and what does it do for acne?
Hydrogen peroxide is typically used for cleaning wounds—remember that handy brown bottle in your medicine cabinet? It's incredibly antibacterial, which is why people might associate it with healing breakouts, similar to they would a scraped knee. And anecdotally, it has been shown to help dry out certain blemishes when used as a spot treatment—but there's very little research to back up those claims. In fact, the cons may outweigh the pros for the brown bottle (more on that later).
According to board-certified dermatologist Hadley King, M.D., hydrogen peroxide should definitely not be your primary treatment for acne. Even if you do decide to go the spot treatment route, it's "only a short-term solution and would only theoretically work on inflammatory acne, not blackheads, and not deep cysts," she says. So while it'll do in a pinch, you'll want to target breakouts at the source for the best long-term results—namely, exfoliants that can penetrate into the pore and promote skin cell turnover.
Hydrogen peroxide versus benzoyl peroxide.
The two may have the same last name, but the similarities end there. They're actually made up of entirely different compounds: "Benzoyl peroxide is lipid-soluble, while hydrogen peroxide is water-soluble," says King. Meaning, benzoyl peroxide can break apart the lipid cell membrane (which is why it's been touted as an effective treatment for acne). Hydrogen peroxide, on the other hand, is an effective disinfectant, but it doesn't have a similar track record in terms of breakouts. In fact, "there is no proof that it can safely and effectively treat acne," says board-certified dermatologist Jeanine Downie, M.D.
Benzoyl peroxide does have its drawbacks as well (it can lead to redness, stinging, and peeling for some, says Downie), but derms favor the solution over hydrogen peroxide any day.
Is hydrogen peroxide safe to put on your skin?
So here's the thing: Hydrogen peroxide wipes out all the bacteria—including the good kind. Just like in our gut microbiome, our skin also has colonies of bacteria that help with a number of processes (namely, help protect us from environmental damage, aid in wound healing, and make sure the skin is less permeable). A strong antibacterial like hydrogen peroxide can destroy all those good, necessary bacteria; without them, you may face an impaired skin barrier, as well as issues like redness and skin peeling. Of course, those with sensitive skin should probably steer clear, as those individuals already face a compromised skin barrier.
At stronger concentrations, hydrogen peroxide is especially irritating, even leading to burns or scarring for some; it makes sense—a cleaning solution that's strong enough to kill viruses might be a little too heavy-duty for the delicate skin of the face, which is why if you are going to use the antibacterial, always, always, use a diluted version (many drugstore options offer 3% solutions).
But even with a diluted product, be mindful of the side effects: According to King, diluted hydrogen peroxide can still have rather damaging and drying effects; it even has the potential to bleach the skin (peroxide has the ability to bleach fabrics, after all), so those with darker skin tones should be extra careful.
How to use it safely.
First things first: We highly suggest opting for a different solution from the get-go (benzoyl peroxide might be a better spot treatment, or perhaps use salicylic acid or an apple cider vinegar toner on targeted areas). But if you've exhausted all other options and are thinking about digging out the big brown bottle, you might as well use it as safely as possible:
- First, wet a cotton ball with a diluted form of hydrogen peroxide.
- Use the solution as a spot treatment by dabbing the cotton ball on the blemish.
- Follow with a hydrating moisturizer (and sunscreen if using during the day).
According to King, you can dab on the spot treatment up to twice a day. Just be sure not to use it for more than two consecutive days, or you might run the risk of all those skin-stripping concerns above.
The bottom line.
Sure, hydrogen peroxide can help dry out the occasional pimple, but the ultra-strong solution might have more cons than pros in the long run. If you are going to use it as a spot treatment, make sure to mind the tips above and proceed with caution. But if you can, opt for a less abrasive acne treatment, like exfoliants—many of which can target the blemish at its source, anyway.
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