It's More Than Cortisol: 6 Other Hormones Your Body Releases When It's Stressed
A stressful situation can wreak havoc on the body, thanks largely to how it affects our hormones. While cortisol is often center stage when we talk about stress, plenty of other hormones are also in flux during unsettling times. Understanding what those are—and how they affect our body's functioning—can help you recognize when you're stressed out and take measures to get back into balance.
Your hormones on stress.
In addition to a surge in cortisol, the body releases a cascade of some hormones and reduces the level of others when it's under stress. Here's a look into what those other stress hormones are and what they do for us:
When stressed, your adrenal glands release epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). We all know adrenaline as the hormone that kicks in when someone's about to jump out of a plane or take a big risk at work. It kicks up your heart rate1, increases blood pressure2, and can lead to sweaty palms.
Norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) is another hormones that gets released from the adrenal glands and brain3 during stressful times. According to functional medicine practitioner William Cole, D.C., IFMCP, chronic stress will cause prolonged higher levels of norepinephrine, which can in turn fuel anxiety, poor sleep, irregular heartbeats4, and higher blood pressure.5
Integrative medicine physician Bindiya Gandhi, M.D., notes that there's a direct correlation between insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels, and the increase of cortisol that happens when you're stressed. "When cortisol levels spike, it also causes a surge release in insulin, which negatively affects glucose metabolism," she says. "As a result, you may crave more sugars, carbs, and sweets6, which then perpetuates the vicious cycle and [triggers] cortisol release."
Another hormone that rises with exposure to stress is prolactin7. "We normally hear about this only in terms of women and breastfeeding, as it's the hormone signaling milk production," functional medicine doctor Mark Hyman, M.D., explains. "However, both men and women have this hormone, and high levels can disrupt the balance of estrogen and progesterone and may also impact emotional regulation."
When a woman is chronically stressed, estrogen levels can be suppressed8. Gandhi points out that in addition to messing with your menstrual cycle, this dip can have an impact on your mental health. Women are 1.5 to three times more likely to have a major depressive episode in their lifetime than men, and scientists are now investigating whether the link between estrogen, serotonin, and mood could be to blame.
During times of chronic stress, testosterone can decrease, too9, "contributing or causing fatigue, muscle loss, and low libido10 in both men and women," says Cole.
How to tell if stress is messing with your hormones.
A little stress every now and again is no big deal (and it can actually be beneficial). But when your body is chronically stressed out, your hormones are in constant flux, which can lead to unpleasant side effects. If any of these ring true for you, it might be time to up your stress management or see a specialist:
Your period is irregular.
You could be dealing with a stress-related hormonal imbalance if your time of the month is irregular11, or your cycle is longer or shorter than normal. "An irregularity can also relate to your flow, and if you're having blood clots or you are bleeding heavier than normal," says Gandhi. "Even painful cramping is a sign of hormonal imbalance, especially if you have not experienced pain before or during cycles."
You feel tired and wired at the same time.
Another sign that stress could be messing with your hormones is if you're feeling tired during the day and wide-awake at night, often with a consistent level of anxiety and irritability. Hyman points out this could be because your cortisol isn't aligned with your circadian rhythm the way it should be. "Often people turn to coffee and other stimulants or sleep medications to feel better—but using these tactics doesn't work to solve the underlying problem and can even make it worse," he says.
You crave salt or sugar.
"In times of stress, we gravitate toward comfort foods, which are generally high in salt, sugar, and fat. This could be because stress hormones increase the hunger hormone ghrelin6," says Hyman. "Sodium acts as an electrolyte and helps to regulate blood pressure, which stress can greatly affect. That means the body may be trying to protect itself by inducing a salt craving." And those sugar cravings occur because stress causes insulin resistance12, in turn making your body unable to regulate your blood sugar properly. While it may feel like eating a whole bag of salty or sugary treats will help you feel better, it'll just further exacerbate this cycle.
You gain weight around your midsection.
Hyman says that stress can also be a root cause of an increase in belly fat, thanks, again, to that insulin: "Stressful events and even thoughts can activate metabolic pathways that cause weight gain and insulin resistance. Insulin acts on your brain to increase appetite, specifically an appetite for sugar. Try as you might, as long as your insulin levels are high, you will fight a losing battle for weight loss," he explains.
How to get your stress levels in check.
While a hormonal imbalance can significantly affect your appetite, mood, and overall health, there are plenty of holistic strategies for getting stress levels in check. For starters, eating a stress-friendly diet can do wonders to reduce the impact stress has on your life. "When you eat whole, real foods, you restore balance to insulin, cortisol, and other hormones," says Hyman. He adds that anti-inflammatory omega-3s, found in foods like walnuts and wild-caught salmon, are especially beneficial.
You could also try to think your way out of stress. "Stress is a thought, a perception of a threat, even if it is not real—this means we have control over stress because it's not something that happens to us but something that happens in us," says Hyman. Meditating or going outside for a walk can help you shift your mindset and regain control.
Supplements that promote calm, like hemp oil, may help too.* Hemp oil has been shown to affect activity in the limbic section of the brain13, the part that's responsible for our "fight-or-flight" response, and help manage the physiological symptoms of stress like blood pressure and heart rate14.*
Finally, try ending your day with a hot lavender bath at night, or as Hyman calls it, the UltraBath. "Take two cups of Epsom salts, half a cup of baking soda, 10 drops of lavender oil, and soak for 20 minutes," he says. "Lavender oil lowers cortisol and helps to balance the whole hormonal system."
Stressful situations can cause a surge or reduction of certain hormones, which can, in turn, affect your mental and physical health if left unrecognized. It's important to tune into your body and make relevant lifestyle adjustments to help manage stress and get hormone levels back in check.
Kristin Hickey is a consultant and freelance writer living in Hoboken, NJ. She has a master’s degree in communication from the University of Queensland in Australia and received her bachelor’s degree from Fairfield University in Connecticut. She enjoys covering lifestyle, wellness, parenting and beauty topics.