What Is Pescatarianism? Benefits Of The Diet & What To Eat
You may have heard this compound word before. It might even hint at yet another "arian"-ending food term within the health and wellness world, but you're still not entirely sure about its meaning.
Put together the words pesce ("fish" in Italian) and vegetarian, and you get pescatarian: a fish-friendly way of eating that offers the benefits of a plant-forward diet, with room for flexibility. It's no secret that some of the healthiest, longest-living populations worldwide eat plenty of fish, along with plant-based foods such as nuts, whole grains, healthy fats, legumes, fruits, and vegetables.
Whether you consider yourself a vegetarian, plant-based bon vivant, or you're merely looking for ways to incorporate more fish-derived omega-3s and protein into your diet, here's everything you need to know about the pescatarian lifestyle.
What is pescatarianism?
Although there's no strict definition or set of guidelines for this eating practice, "a pescatarian is someone who includes fish while maintaining a vegetarian diet. In other words, a pescatarian is a person who will consume fish and seafood but not red meat, chicken, or pork," says Amy Kimberlain, RDN, CDCES, registered dietitian and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. "They will also include tofu, beans, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and grains. Some vegetarians eat eggs and dairy; some do not."
At a glance, pescatarians and vegetarians might look very much alike, with a shared focus on plants as their foundation. But their chief distinction lies in their source of animal (fish and seafood) vs. vegetable protein. A vegetarian does not eat fish, and a pescatarian does.
It's also important to note that pescatarianism isn't new to human history. Many civilizations have followed a fish-dominant, plant-based diet for religious, social, health, and cultural reasons throughout millenniums. However, the term pescatarianism—and the eating behaviors associated with it—didn't officially appear in mainstream culture until the late 20th century.
How does it differ from semi-vegetarian or flexitarian?
Two other buzzy terms, well-known in the wellness sphere, are semi-vegetarian and flexitarian, which are not to be confused with pescetarian. With plant-based eating as their foundation, semi-vegetarians and flexitarians will consume animal protein here and there (think red meat, chicken, etc.), explains Kimberlain—though the frequency is variable and particular to an individual's needs.
"I've seen this in patients that will eat animal protein occasionally, but their main focus is on improving their health, so the majority of their dishes include whole grains and vegetables," she says. "This allows them a little more flexibility in their food choices without feeling any pressure to exclude foods they may like on occasion."
For pescatarians, enjoying food from the sea goes beyond "now and then"—they tend to eat fish as little or as frequently as they prefer.
What are the health benefits of being a pescatarian?
The way we nourish and feed our bodies has a broad-reaching impact on our overall well-being. For many, becoming a pescatarian involves punching up the health benefits of both worlds: a plant-based diet centered around wholesome foods and a fish-centric diet packed with protein-rich, healthy fats. Kimberlain notes that the benefits pescatarians experience are likely due to the synergy of plants and fish.
Does this style of eating sound similar to other world-renowned practices, like Mediterranean and Blue Zone diets? While pescatarianism might have a lot in common with both eating styles, they aren't entirely alike. One key difference is that the Mediterranean diet doesn't exclude any particular food groups; it favors whole plant foods and fish but can also include animal protein beyond seafood. The same goes for the long-living folks in Blue Zone regions—while there's a strong emphasis on plant-based eating, these individuals may also include beef, poultry, and other animal proteins (albeit sparingly) in their diets.
As for the pescatarian diet, specifically, there are a number of benefits to note.
It can be heart-healthy.
A pescatarian diet is protein-packed, nutrient-rich, and abundant in heart-healthy omega-3s. Research suggests that two or more seafood meals per week may reduce congestive heart failure and heart disease. One study even found that higher fish intake (over 14.56 grams per day for men, and 10.89 grams per day for men) was associated with lower total mortality, among the 240,729 men and 180,580 women researchers observed.
Many experts believe the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3s in fish may explain these longevity perks. Oily fish, in particular (think sardines, mackerel, or salmon), are loaded in these fatty acids.
It may help manage inflammation.
Inflammation is the root cause of many diseases, and a lot of pescatarian and plant-based foods may have anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of omega-3s, for example, has been linked to anti-inflammatory benefits and endocannabinoid system support.
It's promotes ample omega-3s.
Eating fish and seafood increases your intake of omega-3s, which, as mentioned, may offer a number of benefits—from reducing inflammation in the body to promoting brain health. In addition to fatty fish, chia seeds, flaxseeds, or walnuts are excellent plant-based sources of omega-3s.
"Seafood is the richest dietary source of omega-3 DHA fatty acids, which helps our heart, brain, and eyes and are essential for a healthy pregnancy," shares Frances Largeman-Roth, RDN, author of Smoothies & Juices: Prevention Healing Kitchen. "A diet rich in seafood (which most of us don't get enough of) would help supply this vital nutrient. Fatty fish is also a vitamin D source—an essential nutrient that many Americans are deficient in."
Fish offers a source of complete protein.
The high-nutrient density of pescatarian foods can help ensure optimal protein intake. Fish and seafood, in particular, are sources of complete protein, with all nine essential amino acids. "Also, unlike red meat, it's low in saturated fat and better for your heart and blood pressure risk," says Largeman-Roth.
Are there other reasons people may opt for a pescatarian diet?
Depending on the pescatarian you ask, you may get different responses as to "why" they choose to eat this way. "Here are a few generally seen reasons: health concerns, aiming to go vegetarian, reducing environmental footprint, animal cruelty concerns, religion, and taste preference," says Kimberlain. In other words, the motivations can be varied and complex.
"If you're concerned about heart health or have a history of heart disease in your family, you may benefit from going pescatarian," says Largeman-Roth. "If you enjoy seafood and like to prepare it, becoming a pescatarian would work for you. There are so many flavors and textures in the seafood world, and many of the choices are sustainable."
Many people turn to a pescatarian diet in hopes of decreasing their environmental footprint by eating sustainable fish and plant-based foods.
Sustainable seafood practices can relieve pressure on water ecosystems, habitat destruction, threatened species, and overfishing, to name a few. If the environment is one of your motivators, in addition to prioritizing sustainably caught seafood, try to seek out seafood beyond larger, more threatened species. What's more, the higher up the fish food chain you go (aka bigger fish), the more likely you'll find higher levels of mercury, mbg Collective member and functional medicine doctor Mark Hyman, M.D., previously told mbg. Instead, consider opting for smaller tinned fish and seafood like wild salmon, herring, mackerel, clams, mussels, sardines, and anchovies.
Ethics, personal values, and animal welfare concerns are other reasons people may choose to follow a pescatarian diet. Similar to why people might opt for a vegetarian or vegan diet, personal beliefs (social, personal, cultural, spiritual, etc.) are often a primary factor.
Potential drawbacks and risks of a pescatarian diet.
As always, speak to your health care provider if you are considering a significant diet modification. Each individual's nutritional demands and genetic structure is unique and might respond differently to eating fish and seafood.
Mercury and other pollutants are a universal concern, and seafood and fish are no exception. As mentioned, larger fish (and fish that eat other fish) tend to have greater mercury content than smaller fish such as sardines, herring, or mackerel. If you are concerned, choosing lower-mercury fish might be a better option. A great acronym to keep in mind is SMASH—sardines, mackerel, anchovies, salmon, and herring. Canned tuna, lake trout, or shrimp are other options to consider.
Pregnant women and children should pay special attention to fish consumption, too. "Women of childbearing age should avoid eating tilefish, orange roughy, marlin, king mackerel, shark, swordfish, and Bigeye tuna due to the mercury they contain," says Largeman-Roth. "Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or trying to become pregnant can still eat plenty of seafood (still, lower-mercury options), as the omega-3 DHA helps support a healthy pregnancy and provides essential nutrients."
What can you eat on a pescatarian diet?
What to eat:
- Whole grains
- Eggs & dairy products (optional)
- Fish & selfish
- Nuts & seeds
What not to eat:
- Red meat
- Wild game
Pescatarian recipes to get you started.
Your sample pescatarian grocery list.
- Veggies (fresh and frozen)
- Fruit (fresh, dried, and frozen)
- Dairy products
- Nuts & seeds
- Healthy oils (EVOO, avocado oil, coconut oil, flaxseed oil)
- Canned fish and seafood
- Fish (fresh and frozen)
- Shellfish (fresh and frozen)
- Pulses and legumes
- Whole grains
- Pseudograins (quinoa, farro, buckwheat, amaranth)
2-day sample meal plan.
Fish and seafood are the protein cornerstones of a pescatarian diet, followed by plant-based, nutrient-dense foods. To get you started, this two-day sample meal plan will give you a taste of a pescatarian's daily eating habits. Because there are endless opportunities to be creative, try to opt for nutritious dishes and healthy cooking styles to make the most of your pescatarian meals.
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