Will Probiotics Help With Bloat & Digestion? Here's The Science

Written by Julie M. Goolsby, M.A.

Julie M. Goolsby, M.A., received her Master's degree in women's studies from Georgia State University.

Medical review by Bindiya Gandhi, M.D.
Physician
Dr. Bindiya Gandhi is an American Board Family Medicine–certified physician who completed her family medicine training at Georgia Regents University/Medical College of Georgia.

Image by Trinette Reed / Stocksy

Two-thirds of Americans experience at least one gastrointestinal symptom, like bloating, diarrhea, heartburn, or constipation, in any given week, according to the National GI Survey. And many are dealing with multiple symptoms.

Although gas by itself is completely normal, it could be a sign of a gut imbalance. In this case, a probiotic supplement could very likely be your best defense against bloating, constipation, and digestive discomfort.*

What does the microbiome have to do with digestion?

Each one of us has our own unique microbiome that is shaped by a variety of factors—from diet to exercise, stress levels, and more. Your microbiome consists of all the bacterial and viral microorganisms that live on your skin, fingernails, mouths, eyes, genitals, and perhaps most importantly, in your gut. 

But what do a bunch of bacterial critters have to do with actually digesting your food? It turns out, the microbiome plays two key roles in digestion. 

The teeming mass of "good" bacteria help us break down indigestible fiber, making more nutrients available to us. And, in the process, they produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and vitamins that we can absorb. 

SCFAs are a byproduct of the fermentation of fiber in the gut by microbiota. While they primarily provide energy for the cells of the colon, they also travel throughout the body, influencing metabolism, inflammation, appetite, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure. They may even be the communication link between the gut and the brain.

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Does taking a probiotic supplement support digestion?

The purpose of probiotic supplements is to deliver more "good" bacteria to the gut, helping maintain a healthy microbial population.* As Robert Rountree, M.D., pioneer of functional medicine and an integrative physician, explains, "Another way to think about it is the probiotics are like good cops. We're putting in the good cops, and the good cops can keep watch over the bad guys." Once ingested, these probiotics can join the rest of your microbiome, fermenting fiber, producing SCFAs, and generally supporting digestion.* 

So, as an integral part of the digestive system, maintaining a healthy microbiome with probiotic supplements supports digestive health.* Probiotics can also help manage some digestive conditions such as constipation, acute diarrhea, leaky gut, and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).*

What about bloat?

More than likely, you've experienced bloat: a swollen, uncomfortable belly, maybe after a big meal or a bubbly beverage. Bloating can occur for many reasons, but it is often due to excess gas trapped in the gastrointestinal tract or "excessive fermentation," Rountree explains. One possible culprit for all that gas: an imbalanced gut microbiome. 

As integrative medicine doctor Amy Shah, M.D., explains, "Typically, bloating is caused by an imbalance of good-to-bad bacteria in your gut. There are 500 bacterial species that work to aid with digestion, and external factors such as medication use, stress, travel, and poor diet can easily disrupt your normal digestive process and cause gastrointestinal discomfort."

You see, not all bacteria are created equal when it comes to gas production. Some strains produce lots of gas as part of their fermentation process, while others produce little to none. 

Tipping the balance in favor of less gaseous bacterial strains by using a probiotic could mean less gas and therefore less bloat.* Shah confirms, "We do know that taking probiotics on a regular basis can support a healthy microbial balance in the gut, which can prevent or alleviate bloating."*

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Which probiotic strains help with bloat?

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Four targeted strains to beat bloating and help reduce abdominal fat.*

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Fortunately, there is something you can do about bloat. According to Rountree, "Using a probiotic supplement is one kind of insurance against having that happen."*

Research has found that specific strains of probiotics, including Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, can reduce constipation and bloat.* In one study, participants took a probiotic containing both Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM twice a day for eight weeks. Those in the probiotic group showed significant improvement in bloating severity, while the placebo group did not.*  

In another study, taking a probiotic supplement containing Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 for 28 days was found to increase bowel movement regularity and ease constipation, two common culprits of bloat.*   

If you struggle with belly bloat and digestive discomfort, then finding a good probiotic could be the key to beating it.* However, keep in mind that sometimes a probiotic can actually cause bloating while your body adjusts to the infusion of microorganisms or because it's not the right fit for you.

Rountree stresses finding a well-researched targeted probiotic supplement specifically for bloat: "That's really important because every bacterium does different things. They've all got an assigned job.” So, look for Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, or other established bloat-beating probiotic strains.

Can probiotics ever *cause* bloat and digestion?

Although the right probiotic can help, sometimes starting a new probiotic or taking one that isn't a good "fit" can actually cause bloating and flatulence. So, pay careful attention to labels and look for particular strains, like those already discussed. 

Because we each have a distinctive microbiota "profile" as unique as a fingerprint, it can take some time to find a probiotic that works well with your personal microbiome. You can also support your gut microbiome by eating fermented foods that are rich in probiotics. However, Rountree cautions, "They're not particularly potent," so if you are looking to target a specific issue, like digestive discomfort, you may want to add in a probiotic supplement as well.  

Want to go one step farther? You can eat prebiotic foods like asparagus and onions or take a prebiotic supplement in addition to probiotics. Prebiotics are what our microbiota feed on, so eating prebiotic-rich foods or taking a prebiotic supplement can help them survive and thrive.

If your condition is chronic, then you should also see your health care provider to rule out any other causes that might require further treatment.

The Bottom Line: If you experience frequent or painful gas, bloating, or constipation, then a targeted, well-researched probiotic supplement can help.* 

If you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or taking medications, consult with your doctor before starting a supplement routine. It is always optimal to consult with a health care provider when considering what supplements are right for you.

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