The 8 Healthiest Fermented Foods To Reduce Inflammation & Boost Your Mood
"Optimizing your gut with probiotics can...also help boost your mood and energy levels, reduce inflammation, and support a healthy immune system," says Ali Miller, R.D., L.D., CDE, author of The Anti-Anxiety Diet. In fact, a large portion (around 80 percent) of your body's immune tissue is located in the digestive tract, so it's heavily influenced by the bacteria living there.
But what's the best way to consume probiotics? While supplements are readily available, many fermented foods are potent natural sources of probiotics. And when you eat these fermented foods, a variety of other beneficial nutrients often go along with them. In fact, like probiotics, the acidic by-products of fermentation also assist1 in digestion but in a different way—by promoting the breakdown of the micronutrients and macronutrients in our diets (including lactose), which can help reduce bloating and cramps.
Here, learn why fermented foods are so beneficial and which pack the biggest probiotic punch.
What are fermented foods?
Fermented foods are created through, well, fermentation—a process in which components of foods, like the natural sugars, are broken down by yeast and bacteria into other beneficial substances. The end result is a food that's chock-full of probiotics (that good bacteria we talked about) and a variety of other nutrients.
Side note: There are different types of fermentation, including wild fermentation, lacto-fermentation, and culturing. Wild fermentation happens when microbes naturally found in foods or the air kick-start the process, lacto-fermentation is a variant of wild fermentation that's characterized by the presence of Lactobacillus bacteria (which is found on most produce, including the cabbage used to make sauerkraut), and culturing generally means a microbial starter was added to initiate the fermentation process.
But before you read on for our favorite fermented foods, it's important to understand that if you haven't been eating them already, you need to introduce them slowly, says Miller. Probiotic foods are powerful and can cause some GI distress if you go from zero to 60 too quickly.
The healthiest fermented foods.
Kombucha, which is made from a SCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast) mixed with sweetened black or green tea, has been around for more than 2,000 years—and for good reason. During kombucha's fermentation process, the SCOBY eats away at the sugars in the tea mixture, producing natural organic acids, B vitamins, and probiotic bacteria as a result.
"Kombucha is a unique probiotic food because of its SCOBY culture," says Miller. "Its SCOBY includes saccharomyces boulardii, which has many benefits for digestion and dermatitis."
While experts agree2 that there need to be more studies on humans to determine the health benefits of kombucha, some research suggests that other components of kombucha, like the polyphenol compounds from tea, are linked to a variety of health benefits3, including reduced cholesterol levels, decreased blood sugar levels, possible reduced risk of some cancers, and improved liver and GI functions. Kombucha is also high in glucaric acid, which provides important support for detoxification4.
It's important to consume kombucha in moderation, however. The Centers for Disease Control recommends5 4 ounces one to three times a day, so not more than 12 ounces a day. It also shouldn't be your main probiotic source. "If you're counting on kombucha to repopulate your gut with beneficial bacteria, I think it's necessary to upgrade your fermented food regimen," Ellen Vora, M.D., holistic psychiatrist, told mbg. "Add A-list ferments like sauerkraut and kimchi along with starchy tubers like sweet potato to really shift your gut flora."
This Korean favorite is one of the best sources of probiotics and thus a great way to boost overall gut health. Kimchi is made by fermenting vegetables, specifically cabbage, with probiotic lactic acid bacteria. While there are many bacteria that assist in the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria is a key player.
Topping your sandwich or Korean barbecue with this flavorful fermented cabbage may lead to health benefits, including weight loss, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome,6 decreased inflammation7, and even the possible prevention of cancer growth8. The best part? Making homemade kimchi is way easier than you think.
Kefir is basically yogurt's thinner, tangier cousin. It's typically made by fermenting milk using kefir grains, which are cultures of bacteria and yeast held together by a polysaccharide produced by the beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus higarii.
"Kefir has a larger variety of beneficial probiotics compared to yogurt, so this will help promote healthy digestion and microbiome health," William Cole, D.C., IFMCP, functional nutrition expert, told mbg. It also contains B vitamins, vitamin K2, and tryptophan—an essential amino acid that's a precursor to mood-stabilizing serotonin.
Because of kefir's strong tart taste, many brands add a lot of sugar, which can offset some of the health benefits. Always go for a plain, unsweetened kefir, and consider flavoring it yourself with a few dashes of cinnamon or by blending it up with some berries.
Lacto-fermented pickles + other vegetables
Pickling and fermenting are sometimes confused with each other. Let's set the record straight: Both processes are ways to preserve food. However, the pickling process preserves food in a brine (salt or salty water) or an acid such as vinegar, while the fermentation process preserves a food with bacteria.
So, how are pickled vegetables (and occasionally fruits) sometimes a good source of probiotics that boost gut health and digestion? Because some pickled vegetables are also fermented, like sauerkraut and lacto-fermented pickles, both of which can be made through the process of lactic acid fermentation.
When choosing pickled, fermented vegetables, always make sure the jar or packaging says "raw and unpasteurized," or "lacto-fermented." That way, you know the beneficial bugs are still alive and kicking, and ready to populate your gut.
In addition to its digestive health benefits, this classic lacto-fermented sandwich topper is a great source of fiber (which feeds beneficial probiotic bacteria in the gut and keeps your digestive system running smoothly) along with immune-boosting vitamin C and bone-building vitamin K.
Be sure to look for freshly made sauerkraut that's labeled "raw and unpasteurized" (it will be in the refrigerated section) and not canned varieties—the pasteurization process that canned sauerkraut goes through kills off much of its beneficial bacteria. Better yet? Whipping up this homemade sauerkraut recipe is surprisingly simple.
Miso is a prominent ingredient in Asian cuisines for its savory umami flavor. It's also a source of iron, calcium, potassium, B vitamins, and complete protein. Because miso is fermented, it contains plenty of beneficial probiotic bacteria, too, including a strain of bacteria that's been linked to a reduction in symptoms of digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease. But you have to be careful how you use it. When cooking with miso, add it to hot recipes toward the end of the cooking process so you don't boil off all those beneficial bugs. (Not into miso soup? Try one of these 9 recipes featuring miso paste.)
Like miso, tempeh comes from fermented soybeans. It is a complete protein, making it an excellent option for vegans and vegetarians (and all people) and crucial for supporting muscle growth and repair. Tempeh is a favorite source of protein among plant-based dieters not only because of its nutritional profile but due to its ability to take on the flavor of whatever it's cooked with—much like tofu (but tofu isn't fermented). Tempeh may also help improve bone strength, reduce inflammation, and reduce cholesterol levels.
Even better, soy foods of all varieties contain omega-3 fatty acids, which can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and improve brain health. And soy's isoflavone phytochemicals may help prevent postmenopausal bone loss and some cancers.
Not sure how to cook with tempeh? Try this drool-worthy, takeout-style sesame tempeh with brown rice and broccoli.
It's hard to go wrong with yogurt (unless you choose a sugar-loaded flavor) and choose yogurts with an active culture label. And like kefir, yogurt has been fermented with lactic acid bacteria, making it another excellent gut-friendly food choice. In fact, research9 has found that yogurt can increase the number of good bacteria strains in the gut. Why that's good? Research has also found that having fewer strains of good bacteria may increase the risk of certain illnesses10, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic inflammatory diseases.
Yogurt is also high in protein—Greek yogurt can have 18 to 20 grams per serving—and calcium, which makes it a wise choice for maintaining balanced blood sugar and boosting bone health.
Heather Mayer Irvine is the author of The Runner's World Vegetarian Cookbook and a former Runner's World Food and Nutrition Editor, based in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. She has a bachelor's in newspaper journalism from Syracuse University, and her work has appeared in national publications including Runner's World, Bicycling, Cooking Light, and Health.com.