The 8 Healthiest Fermented Foods To Reduce Inflammation & Boost Your Mood
It's probably not news to you that consuming good bacteria—aka probiotics—can improve gut health. But what's the best way to get your probiotic fix?
There are plenty of options, but fermented foods are one potent natural source of probiotics. Here, learn why fermented foods are so beneficial and which pack the biggest probiotic punch.
What are fermented foods?
Fermented foods are created through, well, fermentation—a process in which components of foods, like the natural sugars, are broken down by yeast and bacteria into other beneficial substances. The end result is a food that's chock-full of probiotics (that good bacteria we talked about) and a variety of other nutrients.
Side note: There are different types of fermentation, including wild fermentation, lacto-fermentation, and culturing. Wild fermentation happens when microbes naturally found in foods or the air kick-start the process, lacto-fermentation is a variant of wild fermentation that's characterized by the presence of Lactobacillus bacteria (which is found on most produce, including the cabbage used to make sauerkraut), and culturing generally means a microbial starter was added to initiate the fermentation process.
But before you read on for our favorite fermented foods, it's important to understand that if you haven't been eating them already, you need to introduce them slowly, says Ali Miller, R.D., L.D., CDE, author of The Anti-Anxiety Diet. Probiotic foods are powerful and can cause some GI distress if you go from zero to 100 too quickly.
Benefits of fermented foods.
Science is slowly catching up to the benefits of fermented foods. But there are now several human studies to show that consuming them can be beneficial for weight management, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk, mood regulation, muscle comfort,1 and more.
Your GI tract can also get a boost from the benefits of fermented foods. One study found that highly fermented foods increased microbiome diversity and decreased inflammatory activity in the gut2.
The healthiest fermented foods.
Kombucha, which is made from a SCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast) mixed with sweetened black or green tea, has been around for more than 2,000 years—and for good reason. During kombucha's fermentation process, the SCOBY eats away at the sugars in the tea mixture, producing natural organic acids, B vitamins, and probiotic bacteria as a result.
"Kombucha is a unique probiotic food because of its SCOBY culture," says Miller. "Its SCOBY includes saccharomyces boulardii, which has many benefits for digestion and dermatitis."
While experts agree3 that there need to be more studies on humans to determine the health benefits of kombucha, some research suggests that other components of kombucha, like the polyphenol compounds from tea, are linked to a variety of health benefits4, including reduced cholesterol levels, decreased blood sugar levels, possible reduced risk of some cancers, and improved liver and GI functions. Kombucha is also high in glucaric acid, which provides important support for detoxification5.
How to drink it:
"If you're counting on kombucha to repopulate your gut with beneficial bacteria, I think it's necessary to upgrade your fermented food regimen," Ellen Vora, M.D., holistic psychiatrist, told mbg. "Add A-list ferments like sauerkraut and kimchi along with starchy tubers like sweet potato to really shift your gut flora."
This Korean favorite is one of the best sources of probiotics and thus a great way to boost overall gut health. Kimchi is made by fermenting vegetables, specifically cabbage, with probiotic lactic acid bacteria. While there are many bacteria that assist in the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria is a key player.
How to eat it:
Topping your sandwich or Korean barbecue with this flavorful fermented cabbage may lead to health benefits, including weight loss, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome,7 decreased inflammation8, lowered blood pressure9 and even the possible prevention of cancer growth10. The best part? Making homemade kimchi is way easier than you think.
Kefir is basically yogurt's thinner, tangier cousin. It's typically made by fermenting milk using kefir grains, which are cultures of bacteria and yeast held together by a polysaccharide produced by the beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus higarii.
"Kefir has a larger variety of beneficial probiotics compared to yogurt, so this will help promote healthy digestion and microbiome health," William Cole, D.C., IFMCP, functional nutrition expert, told mbg. It also contains B vitamins, vitamin K2, and tryptophan—an essential amino acid that's a precursor to mood-stabilizing serotonin.
How to eat it:
Because of kefir's strong tart taste, many brands add a lot of sugar, which can offset some of the health benefits. Always go for a plain, unsweetened kefir, and consider flavoring it yourself with a few dashes of cinnamon or by blending it up with some berries.
Lacto-fermented pickles + other vegetables
Pickling and fermenting are sometimes confused with each other. Let's set the record straight: Both processes are ways to preserve food. However, the pickling process preserves food in a brine (salt or salty water) or an acid such as vinegar, while the fermentation process preserves a food with bacteria.
Some pickled vegetables, like sauerkraut and lacto-fermented pickles, are also fermented.
How to eat it:
When choosing pickled, fermented vegetables, always make sure the jar or packaging says "raw and unpasteurized," or "lacto-fermented." That way, you know the beneficial bugs are still alive and kicking, and ready to populate your gut.
How to eat it:
Be sure to look for freshly made sauerkraut that's labeled "raw and unpasteurized" (it will be in the refrigerated section) and not canned varieties—the pasteurization process that canned sauerkraut goes through kills off much of its beneficial bacteria. Better yet? Whipping up this homemade sauerkraut recipe is surprisingly simple.
Miso is a prominent ingredient in Asian cuisines for its savory umami flavor. It's also a source of iron, calcium, potassium, B vitamins, and complete protein. Because miso is fermented, it contains plenty of beneficial probiotic bacteria, too, including a strain of bacteria that's been linked to a reduction in symptoms of digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease.
How to eat it:
When cooking with miso, add it to hot recipes toward the end of the cooking process so you don't boil off all those beneficial bugs. (Not into miso soup? Try one of these 9 recipes featuring miso paste.)
Like miso, tempeh comes from fermented soybeans. It is a complete protein, making it an excellent option for vegans and vegetarians (and all people) and crucial for supporting muscle growth and repair. Tempeh is a favorite source of protein among plant-based dieters not only because of its nutritional profile but due to its ability to take on the flavor of whatever it's cooked with—much like tofu (but tofu isn't fermented). Tempeh may also help improve bone strength, reduce inflammation, and reduce cholesterol levels.
How to eat it:
Not sure how to cook with tempeh? Try this drool-worthy, takeout-style sesame tempeh with brown rice and broccoli.
Like kefir, yogurt has been fermented with lactic acid bacteria, making it another excellent gut-friendly food choice. In fact, research15 has found that yogurt can increase the number of good bacteria strains in the gut. Why that's good? Research has also found that having fewer strains of good bacteria may increase the risk of certain illnesses16, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic inflammatory diseases.
Yogurt is also high in protein—Greek yogurt can have 18 to 20 grams per serving—and calcium, which makes it a wise choice for maintaining balanced blood sugar and boosting bone health.
How to eat it:
When shopping for gut-friendly yogurt, avoid the sugar-loaded flavors for a yogurt with an active culture label.
Whether you make homemade pickled garlic or grab a jar of kimchi in the refrigerated aisle at the supermarket, there are many delicious gut-supporting ways to reap the benefits of fermented foods.
Heather Mayer Irvine is the author of The Runner's World Vegetarian Cookbook and a former Runner's World Food and Nutrition Editor, based in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. She has a bachelor's in newspaper journalism from Syracuse University, and her work has appeared in national publications including Runner's World, Bicycling, Cooking Light, and Health.com.