6 Science-Backed Reasons Why You Want To Start Sprinkling Cinnamon On Everything
Today, cinnamon is an essential baking ingredient and can be found in just about every pantry in America—but its history extends far beyond the invention of cinnamon rolls, snickerdoodles, and spiced chai lattes. In fact, the use of cinnamon as a spice can be traced back thousands of years—as far as Ancient Egypt, where it was rare and almost exclusively given to kings and other important people as a gift.
Historically, cinnamon has also been used as a traditional medicine for a variety of ailments, including bronchitis, and today, scientists are studying a wide range of medicinal uses for the spice, including the treatment of diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.
Here, discover everything you need to know about consuming cinnamon as a health-promoting superfood, including the different types of cinnamon, the benefits and side effects, and how much cinnamon is safe to consume per day.
Two main types of cinnamon.
The spice, made from the inner bark of Cinnamomum trees, comes in two main types: Cassia cinnamon and Ceylon cinnamon. Cassia cinnamon, which is produced in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, is the type most commonly sold in the United States and Canada. Ceylon, which is produced in Sri Lanka, India, Madagascar, Brazil, and the Caribbean, is known as "true" cinnamon and has a more subtle flavor.
In addition to cinnamon sticks and ground cinnamon, Cinnamomum trees are also a source of essential oils, which are made from their bark, leaves, and even twigs.
5 health benefits of cinnamon.
Research suggests that cinnamon has the potential to aid in the treatment of everything from heart disease to diabetes. Here are some of the most impressive science-backed benefits of cinnamon:
1. Cinnamon packs an antioxidant punch.
Too many free radicals (or pro-oxidants) can lead to oxidative stress1 in the body, which is linked to the onset 2of a number of serious diseases (like various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and neurological diseases) and acceleration of the aging process2 in general.
The good news: Cinnamon happens to be packed with antioxidants3, which stabilize free radicals. In one study4 of antioxidant activity in 26 different spices, cinnamon came out on top, beating out "superfoods" like oregano. Even better, research reveals5 that the antioxidants in cinnamon are also anti-inflammatory. These antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties likely play a role in cinnamon's other health benefits listed here.
2. Cinnamon can lower blood sugar (and carb cravings).
"A bioflavonoid found in cinnamon called proanthocyanidin may alter the insulin-signaling activity in our fat cells and thus has great potential to help with diabetes," Will Cole, D.C., IFMCP, functional medicine expert, told mbg. "The spice has also been shown to significantly reduce blood sugar levels and triglycerides in people with type 2 diabetes."
One way cinnamon lowers blood sugar6 is by slowing the breakdown of carbohydrates in the digestive tract, which in turn limits the amount of glucose7 that enters the bloodstream. Taking a dose of 1 to 6 grams (roughly one-half to 2 teaspoons) of cinnamon per day has been shown to lower fasting blood sugar levels8 by 10 to 29 percent. Consider adding a sprinkle of cinnamon and a dollop of almond butter to your morning oatmeal to help keep blood sugar stable till lunch.
3. Cinnamon may lower cholesterol and blood pressure.
Cinnamon has been found to reduce cholesterol9—more specifically, it targets LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) and triglycerides while leaving HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) alone. One study10 found that consuming cinnamon daily can even increase HDL cholesterol levels, which is great since HDL helps carry LDL away from the arteries11 and back to the liver, where it can be broken down and passed from the body. There's also some evidence3 that cinnamon can reduce blood pressure, although this has only been shown in animal studies3, so it's not totally clear if the same effects would happen in humans.
4. Cinnamon has cancer-fighting properties.
While the studies12 showing cinnamon's anti-cancer effects13 have only been conducted on animals14, they do suggest that compounds in cinnamon may be toxic to cancer cells. In one study15 involving mice with colon cancer, cinnamon was shown to activate detoxifying enzymes in the colon, which inhibited further growth of the cancer cells. The study hasn't been replicated in humans, but test-tube experiments16 on human colon cells have yielded similar results.
5. Cinnamon may keep your brain healthy and your memory sharp.
Similar to cancer, cinnamon's effects on brain health have mostly been studied in animals. That said, they're still promising. In one study17, rats were fed a high-fat, high-fructose diet. Some were also given cinnamon. The rats who received the cinnamon experienced less anxiety during a maze test, and they did not experience as great of an increase in Tau and amyloid precursor protein—two proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Other animal research has found that consuming cinnamon significantly increases levels of something called sodium benzoate in the brain. This, in turn, increases levels of brain chemicals called neurotrophic factors, which stimulate the creation of new neurons and protect old ones—all of which may slow the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
How much cinnamon is safe to consume per day?
Cinnamon in moderation is great, but too much can harm your health in a number of ways. One of the main drawbacks is specifically related to Cassia cinnamon, which contains significant amounts of the compound coumarin18 (about 5 mg in every teaspoon—which is the recommended daily limit of coumarin for a 130-pound person).
Coumarin can have negative effects19 on the liver and even increase your risk of cancer. In animal studies, too much coumarin has been shown to increase the risk of cancerous tumors in the lungs20, liver21, and kidneys22. Ceylon, or "true" cinnamon, contains only trace amounts23 of coumarin, making it safer to consume.
While there's no established dose for cinnamon in the United States, 1 teaspoon per day of Cassia cinnamon for adults is typically considered safe per European guidelines—and possibly a bit more for Ceylon cinnamon. That's more than enough to boost the flavor and nutrients of your morning oatmeal, latte, or smoothie.
However, people on diabetes medications should be extra cautious. While some cinnamon is great for lowering elevated blood sugar back to healthy levels, too much can send people into hypoglycemia, a condition characterized by very low blood sugar and symptoms of dizziness, tiredness, and even fainting. People taking diabetes medication such as insulin are at increased risk of this if they consume too much cinnamon. So, always consult with your doctor about what constitutes an appropriate amount of cinnamon to consume if you have diabetes.
Are there any other side effects of cinnamon?
Some people also experience allergic reactions to cinnamon. These are triggered by a compound called cinnamaldehyde, which is abundant in both types of cinnamon. People with cinnamaldehyde allergies24 sometimes experience mouth sores25, tongue or gum swelling24, and burning and itching in the mouth. If you're worried you might be allergic, you can ask your doctor for a skin patch test26.
To reap cinnamon's benefits, you should always mix it into food or beverages—never eat dry cinnamon by the spoonful (remember that awful cinnamon challenge27?). Not only can it lead to choking, but the lungs aren't able to break down the fibers in cinnamon, which means it accumulates in the lungs28 and can eventually lead to aspiration pneumonia.
Overall, cinnamon is a powerful, health-promoting ingredient that may help with everything from curbing sugar cravings to lowering your risk of Alzheimer's. But you shouldn't take its perks as permission to dump it onto everything—a little of this spice (up to 1 teaspoon per day, which is still kind of a lot for cinnamon) goes a very long way in terms of boosting the flavor and health benefits of your food. Any more than that could have some negative effects.
Kayleigh Roberts is a freelance writer and editor living in Los Angeles, California. She earned a B.S. from the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University. She covers culture, entertainment, and health and has written for several notable publications including Elle, Marie Claire, and The Atlantic.