These Are The 12 Best Gluten-Free Flour Alternatives
Whether you have celiac disease, a gluten intolerance, or you're simply trying to cut back on gluten, flour (and any products made with flour) is probably the first thing you'll nix from your diet.
Fortunately, there are a number of flour options on the market for baking and cooking that don't contain an ounce of gluten. Some even include a number of additional nutrients that you won't find in flour made from wheat.
To help you choose the best one for your pantry, we rounded up 12 of our favorite expert-approved, gluten-free flour alternatives:
Chickpea flour is made of dry garbanzo beans. Since it's made from legumes, chickpea flour is high in protein. In fact, registered dietitian Jessica Cording, M.S., R.D., CDN, considers it the highest source of protein compared to the other gluten flour alternatives on this list.
"It varies between brands," she says, "but you're generally going to get about 6 grams of protein and 6 grams of fiber per serving." The flour alternative is on the denser side, so make sure you have enough moisture in whatever you're cooking to keep it from drying out.
"Chickpea flour works really well as a binding agent, like in meatballs or falafels in place of breadcrumbs," Cording says. If you're following a vegan diet, it also works well as an egg substitute.
Almond flour is made from blanched almonds, ground down to a powder or flour-like consistency. According to integrative and functional dietitian Nour Zibdeh, M.S., RDN, almonds are less starchy than other gluten alternatives and contain a higher percentage of monounsaturated fat and protein. This is a good option for people following a low-carb or keto diet.
Zibdeh likes using almond flour when baking things like pancakes, muffins, and banana bread. "It helps balance the carbohydrates and is a good choice for low-sugar baking," she says.
Amaranth is a grain, similar to quinoa, known for its high nutritional content. Unlike many plant foods, Zibdeh says, "It's a good source of the two amino acids methionine and lysine," which have a variety of health benefits including collagen production and fighting free radicals.
"It has three times more fiber than wheat and is a good source of plant based-iron, calcium1, and phosphorus2," she adds. "Because it's low in FODMAPs, it's also easier to digest and a good option for people with IBS."
According to nutritionist Frances Largeman-Roth, RDN, "It has an earthy, mild flavor and fine texture, which makes it appropriate for cookies and cakes."
Despite its name, buckwheat doesn't contain wheat or gluten. It's actually a fruit seed related to rhubarb and sorrel, according to Zibdeh. Buckwheat is considered a complete protein, meaning it contains all essential amino acids. It's also high in magnesium and fiber.
"Buckwheat contains rutin and quercetin, which are antioxidant flavonoids that help regenerate vitamin C," Zibdeh tells mindbodygreen. "And some studies have even shown that buckwheat lowers total and bad cholesterol and raises good cholesterol3."
Largeman-Roth enjoys buckwheat flour for its nutty flavor in dollar-size pancakes (aka blini) or soba noodles.
Teff is an ancient whole grain native to North Africa. Largeman-Roth says a quarter of a cup of teff flour contains 2 grams of fiber and 4 grams of protein. It can be used to make injera, a traditional Ethiopian flatbread, porridge, or homemade cinnamon toast crunch.
Brown rice flour
Brown rice flour is made from dry brown rice, ground finely into a powder. Brown rice is high in vitamins and minerals, like magnesium and dietary fibers4.
"Even though it's a whole grain, it doesn't have as strong of a flavor as other whole grain flours," Cording says. "I recommend using it in baked goods if you want a more neutral taste."
Similar to brown rice flour, quinoa flour has a mild flavor. It's high in a variety of nutrients5, including protein, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc.
If you experience GI discomfort from the saponins in quinoa, keep that in mind when deciding whether or not to use this alternative. "If you're sensitive to cooked quinoa," Cording says, "you might also be sensitive to quinoa flour."
Cording suggests using it as a coating when breading chicken breasts or other foods—similar to breadcrumbs—rather than as a binding ingredient.
Arrowroot flour (also called powder or starch) is both gluten-free and paleo-friendly. It's made from the root of a tuber vegetable, similar to cassava or yucca.
Largeman-Roth tells us, "It has a very silky texture and is a great replacement for cornstarch."
Because of its starchiness, arrowroot flour absorbs extra liquid, making it an effective substitute in pies and other fruit-based baked goods. "It adds thickness to recipes like sauces," Largeman-Roth adds, "and can also be used as an egg replacement."
Tapioca flour is used in a lot of gluten-free recipes as a stabilizing agent. While not very nutrient-dense (low in fiber and protein), research specialist in oncology nutrition L.J. Amaral M.S., R.D., CSO, says "It's also low in fat and sugar and has a great texture for baking."
Amaral tells us, "It's perfect for gluten-free soups and helps to emulsify sauces and puddings." Unlike most starchy gluten alternatives, tapioca flour helps to retain moisture in baked goods, like these fluffy popovers.
The tigernut is not a nut; it's actually a root vegetable, making it a friendly alternative for people with both nut and wheat allergies. High in fiber, monounsaturated fats, phosphorus, and iron, "It's very nutritious and often recommended for people who are on a paleo diet or grain-free diets," Cording says.
Tigernuts are also rich in prebiotic starch, so to get a good gut-health boost, make this matcha banana bread. However, similar to other root vegetable flours, it's quite starchy and not as airy as all-purpose flour. It's better suited to foods that don't require leavening, like pancakes or flatbreads.
Cassava is another root vegetable. To turn the tuber into flour, it's first dehydrated and then scraped down. One-fourth of a cup of cassava flour contains 110 calories and zero grams of fat. According to Amaral, it's a good substitute for people following paleo, grain-free, and nut-free diets. "It also has a component of resistant starch in it," she says, "which is beneficial for the gut microbes in our GI tract."
It's a good substitute for flour in biscuits, tortillas, or tortilla chips.
Coconut flour is made from dried coconut meat and is a good gluten-free flour for people seeking a low-carb and low-fat option. A serving size is 2 tablespoons and contains only 2 grams of net carbs and 2 grams of fat.
"The texture is very different from all-purpose flour," Amaral says, "and it requires a lot of eggs and emulsifiers to keep it together." Because of its strong coconut flavor, it works well in sweeter foods like pastries or this keto-friendly zucchini bread.
Abby Moore is an editorial operations manager at mindbodygreen. She earned a B.A. in Journalism from The University of Texas at Austin and has previously written for Tribeza magazine. She has covered topics ranging from regenerative agriculture to celebrity entrepreneurship. Moore worked on the copywriting and marketing team at Siete Family Foods before moving to New York.