Apple Cider Vinegar For Colds: Potential Benefits, DIY Remedies & Side Effects
We are deep in the throes of cold and flu season, and now, more than ever, it's important to give your immune system the support it needs. In the quest to keep your immunity in tiptop shape, you may reach for natural remedies, like apple cider vinegar—or ACV, as the cool kids call it. Devoted users swear by the power of ACV, claiming it can help prevent colds and reduce the duration and severity of symptoms. While much of the evidence surrounding apple cider vinegar for colds is anecdotal—there is limited research to back the benefits—it might be worth a shot (pun intended).
Health benefits of apple cider vinegar.
With reported benefits that range from gut health support to teeth whitening, it seems that apple cider vinegar has become a go-to home remedy for all that ails you. While it's not the answer for everything, it does have a wide range of potential health benefits:
- It may help control blood sugar and improve insulin sensitivity.
- It might improve digestion and reduce bloating.
- It may aid in weight loss1 by suppressing appetite and decreasing stomach fat.
- It can exfoliate your skin and soothe skin irritation.
- It may whiten teeth and eliminate bad breath, thanks to its antimicrobial properties2.
But can it help colds, too?
ACV and your immune system.
ACV can help give your immune system a boost by supporting your microbiome, according to Taz Bhatia, M.D., a board-certified integrative medicine physician, and wellness expert. That's because raw, unfiltered ACV contains a mixture of yeast, bacteria, and enzymes (called "the mother") that make it a pretty potent probiotic (say that three times fast).
"Sixty to 80% of our immune system is in our gut and is known as the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)," registered dietitian Ella Davar, R.D., CDN, previously told mbg. That means that more than half of your immune system relies on a healthy gut, so keeping your gut microbiome balanced with probiotic foods and drinks, like ACV, is especially important for fighting off colds.
While there haven't been any studies that directly connect apple cider vinegar with immunity specifically, research published in Synthetic and Systems Microbiology in 2018 stated that probiotics, in general, are effective for fighting off colds3 and flu-like respiratory infections because they nourish the immune system.
How ACV can help fight a cold.
As far as cold symptom relief goes, ACV might be able to help with that, too. Anecdotal evidence suggests that ACV may act as an expectorant, breaking up and loosening mucus in your nose, throat, and mouth, thereby relieving congestion and reducing coughing.
In theory, ACV, which is a natural antimicrobial2, may also be able to help kill off bacteria and viruses in your throat. In doing so, it may reduce uncomfortable inflammation and irritation, which prompts coughing when you have a cold.
How to use ACV.
Most experts advise against taking ACV in its pure, undiluted form, but there are a few ways you can consume ACV to make it optimally effective at fighting off cold symptoms.
One way to take ACV, recommended by Bhatia, is a straight-up shot that you make by combining 1 tablespoon of raw, unfiltered ACV with 3 tablespoons of water. Just mix together and throw it back, up to two times per day.
You can also combine ACV with other immune-nourishing ingredients, like raw honey and lemon juice, in a supercharged cold-fighting drink. Like ACV, raw honey supports the immune system4 and can coat a sore and scratchy throat5, alleviating pain and discomfort.
To make the drink, combine 2 tablespoons of ACV with 2 tablespoons of lemon juice, 1 tablespoon of raw honey, and 16 ounces of warm water. Stir until the honey dissolves, then sip twice a day.
Risks & side effects.
Although ACV is used as a natural remedy for colds, it may come without potential side effects. Amy Shah, M.D., a double board-certified physician, notes that if you overdo it, it can cause stomach upset and bloating. So if you're new to taking ACV, start slow and don't take too much at once. As a general rule, you never want to exceed 8 ounces per day (which is more than you need anyway).
There's a theory that the acetic acid in the ACV may also erode tooth enamel and make you more susceptible to cavities. It's worth noting the study that showed these results tested teeth in a lab setting6 and didn't account for natural buffers in your saliva that protect your teeth from acids. Nevertheless, it's important to acknowledge. You can protect yourself from the potential negative effects of ACV on your teeth by rinsing your mouth out with water directly after you take it and waiting for at least 20 minutes to brush your teeth.
Apple cider vinegar may also interact with certain medications, like insulin, diuretics, or potassium-lowering drugs. If you're taking any medications, always check in with your doctor before adding something new, like ACV, to your routine.
Other home remedies for colds.
While ACV might be able to help your body fight off a cold, the best way to ensure you stay healthy is with an all-around immune-supporting lifestyle, which could include other home remedies, as well. In addition to building up your gut health with things like apple cider vinegar, Heather Moday, M.D., a board-certified integrative medicine physician and immunologist, recommends:
- Boosting your vitamin D status to balance your immune system and reduce your risk of catching a cold in the first place.
- Add essential oils like peppermint oil and rosemary oil to hot water, and breathe in the vapors, to break up mucus and alleviate coughing.
- Taking elderberry syrup or lozenges to alleviate coughing and reduce severity and duration of cold symptoms.
- Incorporating medicinal mushrooms, like shiitake and maitake into broth-based soups to stimulate the immune system and decrease viral replication.
- Sipping on bone broth, which supplies collagen, amino acids, and lots of minerals that support healing.
- Using a neti pot to irrigate nasal passages, soothe and hydrate nasal membranes, and wash away bacteria and viruses.
- Getting plenty of rest to boost your immune system and allow your body to recover.
It's also important to eat healthy, immune-supporting foods that contain plenty of antioxidants, zinc, and fiber, like citrus fruits, broccoli, sweet potatoes, and miso. The best approach is to make these foods a regular part of your diet rather than trying to eat a bunch at once when you feel the first signs of a cold coming on.
The bottom line.
Apple cider vinegar may be able to help prevent colds by nourishing your gut microbiome, which supports your immune system. It can also loosen up mucus, alleviating the nagging cough that can accompany a cold. But the best way to ensure your immune system is healthy is to eat nutrient-rich foods and get plenty of rest regularly. Also, be sure you check in with your doctor before making any major changes to your diet or lifestyle, especially if you're taking medications.
Lindsay Boyers is a holistic nutritionist specializing in gut health, mood disorders, and functional nutrition. Lindsay earned a degree in food & nutrition from Framingham State University, and she holds a Certificate in Holistic Nutrition Consulting from the American College of Healthcare Sciences.
She has written twelve books and has had more than 2,000 articles published across various websites. Lindsay currently works full time as a freelance health writer. She truly believes that you can transform your life through food, proper mindset and shared experiences. That's why it's her goal to educate others, while also being open and vulnerable to create real connections with her clients and readers.