Your Guide To Autoimmune Diseases: Types, Symptoms, And Causes
Exhausted even though you got your eight hours of shuteye? Gaining weight even though you’re eating mostly whole foods? Always so freakin’ cold and achy? There comes a time when the increasingly annoying symptoms you once chalked up to being overworked and underslept just don’t make sense any more. You’re doing everything right—so what gives?
You might have an autoimmune disease—a condition in which your immune system attacks your own healthy tissue. It’s not a given, of course, but autoimmune diseases are becoming increasingly common, affecting anywhere from 24 million to 50 million people in the U.S., 80% of whom are women, according to various estimates.
Some autoimmune diseases are more well known, like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (a form of hypothyroidism), but there are more than 80 autoimmune diseases in total, which cause a diverse array of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Here, we unpack some of the most common autoimmune diseases, their symptoms, and what testing and treatment look like.
What is an autoimmune disease?
Simply put, “in autoimmune disease, the body makes a mistake and attacks itself,” says Elizabeth Boham, MD, MS, RD, functional medicine physician and Medical Director of the UltraWellness Center.
Under normal conditions, the immune system protects your body by responding to invading microorganisms, like viruses or bacteria—if your immune system deems anything dangerous, it will produce antibodies to ward off these harmful intruders. With an autoimmune disease, however, your body fails to differentiate between the intruder and your own tissue and turns these antibodies against its own healthy tissue.
The specific cells and tissues that your body mistakenly makes antibodies against determines what autoimmune disease (or diseases) you get. “If the body attacks the pancreas, you make less insulin and can develop type 1 diabetes,” says Boham, “If the body starts making antibodies against its thyroid, as it does in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the thyroid gets damaged and it can’t produce as much thyroid hormone.”
What causes autoimmune disease?
While experts still aren't certain about what causes autoimmune diseases, there are a number of factors that may play a role. For one, there seems to be a clear genetic link with many autoimmune diseases—they often run in families. Black and Hispanic women also seem to be at greater risk for certain autoimmune diseases such as lupus. However, whether certain genes actually get expressed may depend on a host of environmental factors.
Case in point: “Infections, stress, exposure to toxins, chronic inflammation, and eating gluten (for some) can all trigger autoimmune diseases, depending on the person,” says Boham, adding that environmental toxins such as mercury may damage tissues, which could cause the body to see them as foreign invaders, thus triggering an autoimmune response.
You’re also more likely to develop an autoimmune disease if you’re a woman, but symptoms often improve after menopause, “so we know there is a hormonal connection,” says Boham.
Types of autoimmune diseases and their symptoms.
According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there are over 80 autoimmune diseases—each of which have a unique set of symptoms that can affect nearly every part of the body. Here are some relatively common autoimmune diseases and what they might look like.
Type 1 diabetes
With type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas. This causes your pancreas to stop making insulin—the hormone needed to usher blood sugar (blood glucose) into your cells—causing your blood sugar levels to rise dangerously above normal. Thus, insulin is needed daily to keep blood sugar levels in check. While type 1 diabetes is more likely to develop in childhood, it can develop at any age and may be slightly more common in adult men than women (unlike most other autoimmune diseases). Unmanaged type 1 diabetes symptoms might include frequent urination, extreme thirst, fatigue, blurry vision, and weight loss—even if you’re eating enough.
Unlike osteoarthritis, which is often a result of age-related wear and tear on joints, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a result of the immune system attacking healthy joint tissue, causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in areas including the wrist, hands, feet, spine, knees, and jaw. It can also cause you to feel unusually tired, lose your appetite, or experience occasional fevers. Sometimes, people experience symptom flare-ups after a trigger like stress or too much activity. RA can develop at any age, but it’s more common as you get older.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
This is the most common type of lupus, in which the immune system attacks your skin, joints, and even certain organs like the heart, brain, and lungs. The systemic inflammation caused by lupus can result in symptoms1 such as fatigue, fevers, joint pain and swelling, and even mouth ulcers and skin rashes—some people with lupus will experience a butterfly-shaped rash over the cheeks and nose (a malar rash) or other skin irritation that gets worse in the sun. In more severe cases, people may experience organ problems and even psychological symptoms. Similar to RA, lupus can occur in “flares,” sometimes years apart. Lupus is most likely to develop between the ages of 15 and 442.
Crohn’s is an inflammatory autoimmune bowel disease that’s most likely to develop in young people between the ages of 20 and 29. It’s characterized by severe inflammation of the lining or wall of the GI tract (predominantly the small intestine), which can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, cramping, weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, and bumpy skin. Stress and certain food triggers (which vary depending on the person) can also cause symptoms to worsen.
Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid, causing it to pump out too much thyroid hormone—this results in an overactive thyroid, a.k.a. hyperthyroidism, and symptoms like nervousness, heart palpitations, weight loss, heart palpitations, and feeling overheated. Important to note: One relatively unique symptom is inflamed eye muscles which lead to bulging of the eyes—up to 50% of people with Grave’s develop this. Grave’s is most likely to develop between the ages 20 and 40.
You can think of Hashimoto’s as the opposite of Grave’s—the immune system attacks and destroys the thyroid gland, causing it to pump out too little thyroid hormone. This results in an underactive, a.k.a. hypothyroidism, and causes symptoms like fatigue, weight gain, hair loss, tingling sensations in the hands and feet, trouble getting pregnant, poor concentration, and feeling cold. Hashimoto's affects about 5% of the population3, making it the leading cause of thyroid issues in the U.S., and it’s most likely to develop between the ages of 30 and 50.
In people with celiac disease, the immune system is extra sensitive to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. (It’s one of the few autoimmune diseases where we actually know the trigger.) The heightened immune response that occurs after eating gluten creates a cascade of inflammation that damages the delicate villi, or hair-like projections, lining the small intestine, resulting in intestinal damage that can lead to diarrhea, poor absorption of nutrients, weight loss, fatigue, skin rashes, abdominal pain, and even neurological problems like migraine, irritability, and depression. Research suggests that celiac disease also puts you at increased risk for other autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto’s and type 1 diabetes.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the nervous system, specifically the brain and spinal cord. It occurs when the immune system attacks the myelin sheath (protective covering) of nerve cells, causing damage that slows or blocks messages between your brain and body. This leads to symptoms such as poor concentration and memory, tingling sensations and numbness, muscle weakness, and vision problems. MS can range from mild to severe, but preliminary research4 suggests that improving diet quality by focusing on more whole, minimally processed foods can go a long way in lessening symptoms. MS typically develops between the ages of 20 and 40.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin, causing skin cells to reproduce faster than they should—in normal healthy skin, it takes about a month for new skin cells to rise to the surface, but with psoriasis, it takes just a few days. This results in scaly, inflamed, sore patches of skin that can show up anywhere, but often occur on the elbows, knees, legs, scalp, lower back, face, palms, and soles of feet. Psoriasis also puts you at risk for psoriatic arthritis, which causes joint pain and swelling. (Notable psoriasis sufferers include Kim Kardashian, who has been vocal about her struggle with this autoimmune disease.)
Addison’s disease, also called adrenal insufficiency, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system damages adrenal glands so they’re unable to make enough of certain hormones, including cortisol. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss and loss of appetite, muscle weakness, abdominal pain, irritability, and depression. Addison’s is considered relatively uncommon, but that may be because there has to be a 90 percent destruction of the adrenal glands in order to receive a diagnosis. Less severe forms of adrenal insufficiency are likely more common.
Common signs and symptoms of autoimmune disease.
One of the reasons it’s so difficult to diagnose autoimmune diseases is because people don’t know what to look for. And while the symptoms of different autoimmune diseases can vary greatly, there are often some commonalities—especially in the early stages of disease.
According to the NIH, the first symptoms of autoimmune disease often include fatigue, muscle aches, a low fever, and redness, heat, pain, and swelling in different areas of the body. Another sign that your symptoms may indicate an autoimmune disease: They come and go—recurring flare-ups followed by periods of improvement are relatively common.
But that’s not all. While it’s not always clear why they occur, here’s a roundup of some symptoms that are relatively common across several autoimmune diseases.
Digestive distress and abdominal pain.
GI issues can be very common across autoimmune diseases, says Amy Shah, MD. “We think autoimmunity is an issue of microbiome imbalance at least in part,” she explains. Right now, it’s not totally clear whether gut issues are an underlying cause or a symptom of autoimmune diseases—or a little of both.
Recurrent skin rashes.
These symptoms are most obvious with lupus, but recurring rashes can also occur with other autoimmune diseases, including celiac disease. It’s not exactly clear why, but the health of your gut microbiome (which may be compromised with an autoimmune disease) is also intimately connected with the health of your skin5.
Joint and muscle aches.
These are particularly common in RA and lupus, but can occur with nearly any autoimmune disease, possibly—at least in part—due to increased inflammation throughout the body.
Redness, pain, and swelling.
Hot, puffy, and sore-to-the-touch skin can be a result of the increased systemic inflammation associated with various autoimmune diseases, most notably with RA and lupus.
Fever without an obvious infection.
Just as you’d experience a fever when your body launches an immune response against a virus, you may experience a fever6 when your body launches an immune response against itself.
Fatigue and difficulty concentrating.
Research shows that “profound and debilitating fatigue7” (which can lead to poor concentration) is the main complaint among a range of autoimmune diseases, including lupus, MS, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and RA. It’s not clear why, but it likely has to do with inflammation’s effect on processes that regulate energy levels, including oxygen and nutrient supply.
Weight gain or weight loss.
Impaired thyroid functioning, as seen in Grave’s and Hashimoto’s, along with chronic inflammation8 and an imbalance gut microbiome9—which may underlie many if not all autoimmune diseases—can alter metabolism and result in unhealthy weight gain or weight loss.
Feeling overly hot or overly cold.
Thermoregulation, your body’s ability to maintain a healthy internal temperature, can be impaired with several autoimmune diseases, including Grave’s (people often feel hot), Hashimoto’s (people often feel cold), and MS10 (people tend to feel cold or hot more quickly than others). This can be a result of hormonal imbalances or impaired neurological functioning10.
Hair loss is a notable symptom of both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and lupus; and with the autoimmune disease alopecia areata, the immune system specifically attacks the hair follicles.
Numbness or tingling in hands and feet.
Several autoimmune diseases, including lupus, RA, and Sjogren’s syndrome, are associated with peripheral neuropathy. When the immune system attacks its own tissue, nerve damage can result, which may trigger tingling, numbness, and prickling sensations.
Trouble getting pregnant.
Most autoimmune diseases affect women of childbearing years, and some research suggests11 autoimmunity is associated with impaired fertility—though the reason why isn’t yet clear. In particular, Hashimoto's thyroiditis seems to be a common hidden cause of fertility struggles12.
Symptoms that flare up and subside.
Changes in symptom severity (with periodic flare ups) are common with certain autoimmune diseases, including RA, and may be triggered by stress levels, dietary changes, and other lifestyle habits.
Can you test for an autoimmune disease?
Diagnosing an autoimmune disease can be tricky, since no single blood test can give you a clear-cut yes or no answer. Typically, an autoimmune disease is diagnosed based on your clinical symptoms—your doc should do a comprehensive medical history—coupled with one or more blood tests.
The first blood test you’ll likely receive is an antinuclear antibody (ANA) test. This measures levels of antinuclear antibodies—antibodies that attack healthy proteins within the nucleus of cells. A positive result means you might have an autoimmune disease, but it can’t tell you which one.
The ANA test is often followed up with another test that looks for specific autoantibodies—for example, if you have inexplicably achy joints, your doctor will likely run a rheumatoid factor (RF), says Boham.
How can you treat autoimmune disease?
There’s no cure for autoimmune diseases, and most conventional treatments involve reducing pain and inflammation, and controlling your body’s overactive immune response with drugs such as immune-suppressing corticosteroids and NSAIDs like ibuprofen. However, these treatments don’t get to the root of your condition, and they come with a host of side effects.
So, if you're concerned you may have an autoimmune disease, it can be wise to seek out a functional, integrative, or holistic physician to help determine your best course of treatment. Often, this type of treatment looks like a combination of dietary and lifestyle changes.
“Diet is very important here,” says Boham. “We remove common food allergies, often starting with the removal of gluten, since this is a common cause of autoimmunity. We also remove inflammatory foods and shift to an overall anti-inflammatory diet that’s rich in whole foods and veggies, low in sugar and alcohol, and gluten- and dairy-free.”
In addition to switching to an anti-inflammatory diet and eliminating potentially irritating foods like gluten and dairy, integrative dietitian Ali Miller, R.D. says “it can be smart to proactively support your gut tissue with healing foods like bone broth, collagen, gelatin, and support the diversity of your microbiome with probiotic-rich foods such as sauerkraut, kombucha, yogurt, and pickles.”
Once you’ve dialed in your diet, supplements such as digestive enzymes, probiotics, zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine may help further heal and balance the gut, says Boham.
Autoimmune diseases encompass a range of conditions with one common factor: For some reason, your immune system is mistakenly attacking your own healthy tissue. And while there are dozens of different autoimmune diseases whose symptoms can vary wildly, there are some commonalities in the early stages (think: fatigue, GI distress, and achy joints), which can help point you in the direction of a diagnosis. If you think you may have an autoimmune disease, reach out to your doctor ASAP.
If you end up getting diagnosed, take a deep breath and know it’s not the end of the world. Addressing the main factors exacerbating your autoimmune disease with some basic diet and lifestyle changes can go a long way in helping you feel better.
Stephanie Eckelkamp is a writer and editor who has been working for leading health publications for the past 10 years. She received her B.S. in journalism from Syracuse University with a minor in nutrition. In addition to contributing to mindbodygreen, she has written for Women's Health, Prevention, and Health. She is also a certified holistic health coach through the Institute for Integrative Nutrition. She has a passion for natural, toxin-free living, particularly when it comes to managing issues like anxiety and chronic Lyme disease (read about how she personally overcame Lyme disease here).