Ever had someone in your life who dragged you down or made you doubt yourself? It's very possible you were dealing with a toxic relationship. We've all heard the term, but what does it really mean? And more importantly, what can be done about it?
What is a toxic relationship?
A toxic relationship is one in which one or both partners feel trapped, controlled, and/or drained by the other, explains relationship coach Shula Melamed, M.A., MPH. "They can be emotionally, psychologically, or physically abusive—or all of those things," she says. "All relationships are hard work, and there's always compromise, but a toxic relationship is one in which the members aren't supporting each other in a healthy way."
Certain themes, like codependency and narcissism, are also common in toxic relationships. As therapist Wendy Behary, LCS, tells mbg, "Any toxic relationship implies there is something potentially damaging for the person (or both people) in that relationship." These relationships can leave you doubting your own reality, your own values, and your sense of self-worth.
Signs of a toxic relationship:
You're constantly sacrificing your own needs.
Toxic relationships can result in a lot of self-abandonment, Behary explains. "You feel you have to forfeit your voice, your opinion, your wishes and wants, and your own needs."
You feel erased or invisible.
"Toxic relationships are also relationships where you don't feel accepted for who you are; you may feel like an outsider, shunned, or judged constantly," functional medicine practitioner Will Cole, D.C., IFMCP, tells mbg. With enough self-abandonment, you'll begin to feel like you're losing yourself. You may feel erased, invisible, or unfamiliar to yourself. You may find yourself doing things you never thought you would, doubting yourself and your values.
"Toxic relationships are very lonely," Behary says. "These relationships create a great sense of loneliness because the true sense of intimacy is not there—it's devoid of real personal connection and empathic attunement." (Here's more on why you might feel lonely in a relationship.)
You bring out the worst in each other.
Healthy relationships bring out the best in both partners. Toxic ones will do the opposite. "Some people are just horrible matches for each other," Melamed notes. "Some people just bring out something in the other person that is just horrific."
Spending time with them leaves you drained.
"A toxic relationship is a relationship that consistently leaves you feeling drained, bad about yourself, or emotionally or physically unsafe," Cole explains. "Consistent means this is how you feel more often than not after hanging out with this person. This is key."
There's uneven give and take.
"Usually toxic relationships involve an unequal amount of give and take, where one person must give a lot and receives very little in return," Cole says.
One or both partners are controlling.
In toxic relationships, particularly if a narcissist is involved, Behary says there will be a certain level of control where one partner may dominate the other. This can be more literal but also emotional, she says, such as "making them feel as if they're not good enough or their partner is the only one who has any say in what's going on."
Jealousy is a frequent issue.
Where there is controlling, there is often jealousy. Toxic relationships often stem from insecurity or a need to control certain situations. Jealousy can manifest from these behaviors and patterns.
You feel isolated.
If your partner is constantly isolating you, perhaps even turning you against your friends and family, that's a major red flag. In a toxic relationship, partners may manipulate each other into "needing" each other—and isolating each other away from other relationships. This enmeshment can sometimes feel like closeness and bonding, when in reality it stems from unhealthy codependence.
There are issues like substance abuse or unchecked mental health.
Oftentimes in toxic relationships, especially codependent ones, Melamed says, one partner may have a substance abuse or unchecked mental health issue they're not getting help with. When this happens, the other partner may tiptoe around it or even enable it. "One person may like the fact that the other has an unchecked issue because it allows them to stay in control of the other person," she adds.
There's a lack of respect.
"Usually, in toxic relationships," Behary notes, "you're consistently undermining or causing harm to your partner." This can play out in a number of ways, but the general idea is that there isn't a sense of camaraderie but rather disdain and resentment.
Emotional or psychological abuse.
Along with isolating each other and controlling each other, other forms of emotional and psychological abuse are also likely present in a toxic relationship. This can look like explosive arguments, one or both of you belittling the other, rejecting each other's realities, lying, manipulation, and so on.
This one goes without saying, but any physical violence—including pushing, shoving, grabbing someone's arm so hard it hurts, and any other physically aggressive act—is a clear indication that there is a pathology within the relationship that's causing direct harm to one or both of you.
One of the more common forms of psychological abuse that directly links with narcissism and toxic relationships is gaslighting. Gaslighting happens when one partner denies the reality of another, manipulating them into doubting the validity of their own emotions and needs. (Here are signs of gaslighting in relationships.)
You can't communicate effectively.
Partners in a toxic relationship will find it nearly impossible to work through disagreements. "I always say in healthy relationships, when you're fighting, you're not fighting each other, you're fighting for the relationship to work out," Melamed notes. "And that's where things like healthy compromise come in—trying to take the other person's perspective with empathy and vulnerability."
Resentment of the other person.
Because communication is so difficult, it can leave one or both partners feeling unheard, which will brew resentment. "One person or both people resent the other person," Melamed adds, "and think the other person owes them something. And that's usually their own sense of self-worth."
If you're in a toxic relationship that's been going on for a while, you may have noticed a pattern emerge; things never go smoothly for long, and you aren't surprised when the toxicity rears its head. Yet for some reason, you can't walk away (yet).
One person makes all the decisions.
If one person is calling all the shots, Melamed and Behary both note that's not a good sign. Both partners should be on board with big decisions, and if one is always pushing for more, that's an indication of an imbalance. Research shows power imbalances between couples can cause significant strain on the relationship.
Your friends and family don't approve.
Lastly, trust your community. If the people who've known you before this partner rolled around have real concerns about your relationship, that's not something to ignore. Especially in toxic relationships, it's important to get the take of someone who's not wearing rose-colored glasses.
Physical symptoms and effects.
Toxic relationships can also cause serious health issues due to the sheer stress they put the body under. "Many of my patients over the years could pinpoint their health declining when they were in a toxic, stressful relationship or environment," Cole explains. "That's because, in a toxic relationship, the emotional becomes the biological."
These issues include but aren't limited to:
Anxiety and depression.
"When you're bracing yourself for criticism, judgment, for having to really be on your toes because you're walking on eggshells," Melamed notes, "you're in a constant state of low-grade anxiety and constantly in fight-or-flight. Depression is at play too."
Weight loss or appetite changes.
Due to the way toxic relationships can lower self-esteem, plus the stress they cause, this can result in appetite changes and weight loss, Melamed says.
As we're all aware, nothing ruins a good night's sleep like stress, and toxic relationships can definitely keep you up at night. "Sleep deprivation can even be used to control other people," Melamed adds.
Increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
What causes toxic relationships?
So, what's the underlying cause of these kinds of relationships? According to Behary, toxic relationships often stir up our deepest fears: "perhaps early trauma, early memories of abandonment or abuse, being made to feel that you're inadequate or unlovable, or being deprived of emotional attention," she says.
"When you're in a toxic relationship, you're in a relationship that can often feel familiar to something you've known, though you might not realize right away," she adds.
For this reason, it's important to reflect on what we saw growing up. "If we grew up in a household where we saw unhealthy relationships, or around our friend group, or in our community we saw unhealthy relationships as models, it's easier to think that it's normal, acceptable, or just the way things are," Melamed says. "It can also come from having lower self-esteem or a lower sense of self-worth and not understanding what a healthy relationship looks like."
Can a toxic relationship be fixed?
Yes, though it takes a lot of work, both individually and as partners. "It really takes an understanding for both parties that something isn't working," Melamed says, and likely both of you have work to do on yourselves.
She and Behary both agree, a third party like a couples' therapist will likely be necessary. It will be work you both have to do and you may need an outside party to guide you through. "It will require professional help and even then there's no guarantee," Behary adds. "It will really take diving deep into the emotional system," she says, "but if they are willing and motivated to do the work, then there's a chance."
Here's a step-by-step guide on how to fix a toxic relationship.
How to leave a toxic relationship.
Depending on how deeply you two are invested (i.e., are you married, dating, have children?), how you get out of the relationship will vary. But one thing you will need no matter what, Behary and Melamed say, is compassion for yourself and a willingness to reflect.
"Have compassion for yourself," Melamed says, "and really examine your role in staying in the relationship. Not saying it's all your fault—but asking, Are there areas of self-worth and self-esteem I need to work on? How you want to feel in a relationship is one of the first things I ask people to reflect on."
If you're married, Behary says it's important to be prepared with all the files and information you might need, plus a savvy lawyer, to help you proceed. Additionally, she says the most important thing is to make time to care for yourself and lean on your support systems as necessary throughout this process.
The bottom line.
Toxic relationships are incredibly challenging to deal with, but once you realize what needs to change, you can potentially overcome your issues—or walk away. Either way, there are always lessons to be gained. As Behary says, "Once we realize our health and welfare really matters, it's a journey worth taking."
Sarah Regan is a Spirituality & Relationships Writer, as well as a registered yoga instructor. She received her bachelor's in broadcasting and mass communication from SUNY Oswego, and lives in Buffalo, New York.