From how they began to how to get over them, there's a lot to unpack when it comes to trust issues. If you or a partner have struggled with trust issues, it's likely to come up in your relationship. But trust issues can also cause problems in nonromantic relationships, like with family and friends.
Here are some common signs you might have trust issues, plus how to deal with them and start taking steps to be a little more trusting.
What are trust issues?
Common signs of trust issues
According to licensed psychologist Nicole Beurkens, Ph.D., folks with trust issues will often have difficulty with commitment. This comes from a fear of opening up and being seen, notes couples' therapist Michael Moran, LCSW, CST, because when you experience trust issues, the possibility of a trusting and fulfilling relationship can seem out of the question.
Assuming people are doing things to hurt you
People with trust issues, according to both Beurkens and Moran, will also work from the assumption that people are intentionally doing things to hurt them. It can be hard to accept kind gestures, compliments, or love, in general, because you just can't believe they're genuine and not a guise for ulterior motives.
Isolating yourself from others
As a result of the assumptions and commitment-phobia, many people with trust issues will withdraw at the smallest sign of trouble, Moran says. Once you have it in your head that you can't trust people, it makes cultivating new relationships less of a priority--and perhaps something to actively avoid altogether.
Being overly secretive about yourself
When you do interact with people, even those you're close with, you may be overly secretive about yourself. "The underbelly of this is often 'I'm scared I can't be myself with you. I'm scared that you're not gonna accept me for who I am. Or I'm scared you won't let me in,'" Moran says.
When we feel distrusting and assume the worst, it can often result in being reactive and picking fights, even over petty things. "Think of [the reactivity] as what is seen above the waterline," Moran notes. Under the surface, trust issues fester, manifesting in big and small ways when we feel our trust is being violated. "It informs who they are, and that impacts the partner," he adds.
Trust issues may cause you to feel overprotective and hypervigilant, Beurkens notes, both of yourself and who you're close to. You may always be on the defense and imagine worst-case scenarios in your relationships, or experience catastrophic thinking if you feel someone is trying to trick you.
Reluctance to open up
Trust issues can make it difficult for someone to open up. "If things happen in the relationship and who I am isn't fully welcome or mirrored back to me," Moran says, "of course we start to contract." You may feel that who you are won't be accepted or valued, even if there has been no reason for you to feel that way with a particular person.
Why some people have trust issues
Trust issues develop as a result of our past or present experiences. Our childhood, specifically our relationship with our parents, can play a particularly big role in how we approach relationships today. This is the basis of attachment theory. Beurkens notes that if someone experienced betrayal, abandonment, or harm when they were young, this can lead to trust issues as an adult.
"We all have vulnerabilities from childhood because the human experience if flawed," Moran adds. For example, "Someone who was raised with a father who was very distant learned this person who was 'god'—our parents are god to us—isn't really emotionally available." And that sticks with us, sometimes forming what's known as an insecure attachment style.
Beurkens adds that trust issues "can also develop as a result of being betrayed or hurt in relationships as an adult, including friends, family members, and/or romantic partners."
As such, infidelity is a common cause of trust issues. Being cheated on, or any number of scenarios that break your trust, can cause attachment injuries, Moran explains. "A real attachment injury ties right to trust: Something happens in the relationship where the hurt partner decides on a certain level, 'You're unsafe, and I can never trust you again.'"
How to overcome trust issues
With a little patience and willingness to accept risk, people can overcome trust issues:
Process past hurts
"Awareness that trust issues are present is an important first step," Beurkens says. "It is also valuable to process betrayals, hurts, and other origins of trust issues in order to come to a better understanding of them and not continue reliving those situations in current relationships."
Moran and Beurkens both note that therapy may be a necessary step if your wounds run deep and trusting is a challenge, "although some people can successfully process past hurts and rebuild trust via books, online support groups, etc.," Beurkens adds.
Get comfortable with risk
A big portion of the work when it comes to trust issues is learning to get comfortable with risk. "Everyone makes mistakes," Beurkens says, "and everyone will let you down at some point. That doesn't mean they can't be trusted." And on top of that, "recognizing even if you are hurt by someone, you can feel that deeply but still move forward and have other healthy relationships in your life," she adds.
Mindfulness can be a good practice to help you stay in the present, and "learn to more objectively evaluate what is happening now, and not be swept away emotionally by assumptions," she says.
Work together as a couple
If you're in a relationship already, make sure your partner is involved so they can support you through your healing process. For couples to bridge the gap from mistrust to trust, Moran notes, both partners need to be accessible, responsive, and engaged (or "ARE," as he likes to call it).
Trust is a huge factor in the foundation of every relationship, romantic or not. When we can't trust those closest to us, it can feel incredibly isolating and lonely. But it is possible to overcome trust issues so your relationships with those you love can flourish.
Sarah Regan is a Spirituality & Relationships Editor, a registered yoga instructor, and an avid astrologer and tarot reader. She received her bachelor's in broadcasting and mass communication from State University of New York at Oswego, and lives in Buffalo, New York.