Open and honest communication plays a huge role in the success of any relationship, particularly romantic ones. But for one reason or another, some people are not always inclined to share their feelings with friends, family, or even their partner. If your S.O. is closed off and resisting opening up to you, it can feel hurtful and discouraging—but there are steps you can take to encourage them to do so. Here's why someone might be closed off and how to get someone to open up.
Why someone may be closed off.
"The main reason a person might have a hard time opening up is that they don't feel emotionally safe to do so," psychotherapist Megan Bruneau, M.A., tells mbg. This may be a reflection of how they feel about the relationship. They may not perceive it to be safe enough to share their inner world, or they may not yet be invested enough in the relationship to want to delve deeper with their partner.
The tendency to be closed off can also stem from previous relational experiences or trauma. It's possible that this person could be "feeling shame around their experience and believe they should 'hide' that part of them," Bruneau explains. Some people from conservative or collectivistic cultures may be less inclined to discuss personal issues, Bruneau adds. Generally speaking, men across many cultures are not encouraged to talk about their emotions, so many men have learned to resist doing so from a young age.
It's important to remember that people process things in their own way and at varying speeds, as well; they truly may not know how to answer your questions because they haven't asked the questions themselves. "Someone might have a hard time opening up if they haven't processed what they're resistant to open up about," she notes. "It's uncomfortable for them to 'go there,' so they avoid it."
How to get someone to open up:
Consistency is key.
If your partner is dealing with any of the above, whether it's past relational trauma or a lack of processing their own emotions, it's important to be consistent to help build trust. "People with rigid boundaries, who have challenges opening up, tend to require longer than the average person to build trust, rapport, and emotional safety," Bruneau says. Being sure to stay true to your word, calling when you say you will, and so on, can help with that foundation.
Practice active listening.
Even if someone has trouble opening up, we all have a deep desire to feel seen and understood. Active listening is a great way to reassure your partner that you're there for them by offering the safe space they need. "The most important component of active listening is empathy: A nonjudgmental verbal acknowledgment of one's feelings," Bruneau notes. You can do this with phrases like, "It sounds like you're feeling [insert appropriate feeling] because [reason they might be feeling that way]," which opens up the door for them to give their take.
Ask questions...but not too many.
Finding the balance between sensitive questions and prying is crucial, as the latter can make your partner pull away more. We all want to feel like we matter and are cared about, but no one wants to feel like they're in the hot seat. "Too many questions can leave them feeling interrogated and judged and put them on the defensive," Bruneau adds. So be patient, and don't forget to actively listen when you pose a question.
Demonstrate sharing and self-disclosure.
Without "hijacking the conversation and making it about you," Bruneau says, "self-disclosure can also be effective in helping someone open up." She recommends phrasing sharing and self-disclosure statements in a way that prompts them to offer their experience. For example, "I've been really struggling with social distancing and feeling super lonely and anxious about it. How have you been doing?" By including them in your own vulnerability, they'll be less likely to feel dismissed or silenced, Bruneau says.
Lean on nonverbals.
It sounds simple, but nonverbal cues go a long way in effective communication. We've all had the feeling someone wasn't saying what they meant, based on their body language, so being mindful of the cues we're giving off will help build trust and a feeling of safety. According to Bruneau, things like "eye contact, genuine and warm facial expressions, and your tone of voice" are all things to keep in mind.
Let them know you value your relationship and ask what they need to feel safe.
If all else fails, you may have to ask your partner outright what they need. "This one isn't always appropriate," Bruneau notes, "but if you've tried everything and still feeling like they're closed off, you might say something like, 'I really care about you and want to continue deepening our relationship. I've noticed whenever we broach [insert topic], you change the subject. If you don't want to talk about it, I understand and won't pry, but I also want to be here if and when you do. Is there anything you need from me to feel safer sharing?" (Keeping in mind previous points like nonverbal cues and active listening.)
Acknowledge your own desires.
Lastly, Bruneau stresses that it's equally important to recognize our own desire to deepen relationships faster than others might want to. We may have different boundaries, timelines, or even be subconsciously dealing with fears of abandonment. If you're struggling with a partner's unwillingness to open up, "reflect on your own needs for 'information' or intimacy, and consider that there might be a need to practice patience with the process."
How to maintain the connection.
Once you've successfully begun making headway in helping your partner open up, "acknowledge what they've shared and thank them for trusting you with this information," Bruneau says. And don't be alarmed if you have to pump the brakes a bit, as it's common for people to "retreat after opening up because their own vulnerability and shame is too overwhelming or uncomfortable," she adds.
To keep the self-disclosure flowing, continue practicing the aforementioned tips, along with broader ways to deepen your connection as a couple, like prioritizing date nights and learning how to effectively work through disagreements. Changes may not happen overnight, but with a little patience and effort, you and your partner can figure out what works for you to really emotionally connect.
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Sarah Regan is a Spirituality & Relationships Writer, as well as a registered yoga instructor. She received her bachelor's in broadcasting and mass communication from SUNY Oswego, and lives in Buffalo, New York.