Can You Do Intermittent Fasting During Pregnancy? The Experts Weigh In
Intermittent fasting (IF) has some significant health benefits. This dietary approach, which refers to going without food for a certain period of time, promotes ketosis and thereby increases fat burn, boosts cognitive functioning and energy levels, reduces inflammation, and may even boost longevity. Some experts even think that, done consistently over the long term, intermittent fasting likely reduces the risk of getting type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
It's certainly not for everyone, though. As we've reported before, intermittent fasting could potentially be a bad choice if you're prone to anxiety, have a history of eating disorders, or you're dealing with one of these issues. But what about during pregnancy? If you're a die-hard intermittent faster and you get pregnant, do you have to give up this lifestyle or might there actually be some perks like improved energy levels and reduced risk of gestational diabetes?
Here, we chat with two female intermittent fasting experts for the lowdown on whether any version of intermittent fasting can be considered safe during pregnancy.
If you're currently pregnant, most experts agree: Don't fast.
We'll cut to the chase: Pregnancy and intermittent fasting don't really mix. "I want to be clear that I am very in favor of fasting and time-restricted eating but not during a pregnancy," says Felice Gersh, M.D., OB/GYN, founder/director of the Integrative Medical Group of Irvine and author of PCOS SOS.
Amy Shah, M.D., an integrative physician who personally practices reverse intermittent fasting (aka circadian rhythm fasting), feels similarly. "Intermittent fasting during pregnancy is not something I would ever recommend," she says. "But, if you are someone who fasts regularly and want to continue it at a much lower level during pregnancy, I would be willing, as a doctor, to support and guide you."
So, why exactly is intermittent fasting—which can run the gamut from eating during a daily eight-hour window (called 16:8 fasting) to eating only every other day—a no-go during pregnancy? For one, "fasting promotes fat burning, but women in pregnancy are supposed to be creating and storing fat, not burning it," says Gersh. This could lead to inadequate weight gain of the growing fetus and hormonal imbalances that could cause significant harm. Fasting can also create a brief time of hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar) while the body is trying to change from a glucose-burning state to a fat-burning state, which is bad for the fetus even if happening briefly. The fact is, Gersh says, "fasting is a metabolic correction process, and pregnancy creates a new metabolic reality not suitable for the fasted state."
Additionally, while fasting is good for the immune system in general, it actually lowers immune function for a period of time. And, as women who are pregnant have reduced immune function already, lowering it further is not a good idea—"Pregnant women cannot gamble on getting ill," warns Gersh.
Finally, women who are pregnant often have sluggish digestive systems and are prone to nausea and constipation. For them, Gersh says, eating small meals, and eating them more frequently throughout the day, can help them digest and absorb their food better, while fasting may exacerbate these issues.
Ways you can tweak your diet for a healthy pregnancy.
All of this information does not, however, mean you need to eat during every waking hour when you're pregnant. Depending on your pregnancy (if you're healthy, gaining weight appropriately and have the blessing of your OB/GYN), Shah says you can confine your eating to a daily 12-hour window—which is a bit long to technically be considered a form of intermittent fasting but may still deliver some metabolic benefit.
You can also promote a healthy metabolism and balanced blood sugar, and potentially avoid a complication like gestational diabetes, by prioritizing your morning meal and nixing late-night snacking. "The only timing rules that should be followed during pregnancy are to eat breakfast and to not eat after 8 p.m.," says Gersh.
To boost health during pregnancy, Shah says you can also ramp up your intake of vegetables, fruits, and nuts and scale way back on refined sugars and processed foods (for more details, here's a nutritionist's take on what you should eat in a day when you're pregnant).
But if you're thinking about getting pregnant, IF may actually help.
While intermittent fasting probably isn't wise if you're pregnant, it can offer great benefits for women who want to get pregnant. That's because, some experts say, IF may actually help improve fertility by aiding in weight loss and regulating your hormones. "It can boost fertility especially if you have PCOS or some other hormone-related causes of infertility," says Shah.
But you still need to be careful, as intermittent fasting can stress the body and contribute to infertility if done too aggressively. "Women are advised to watch for any changes to their cycle—if there are, that might mean your fasting plan is too aggressive." In that case, scale back on your daily fasting window until you find your sweet spot. Many people do well on a 16:8 fasting plan, which includes fasting for 16 hours and confining your eating to an eight-hour window, but you may need to start more gradually (say, a 10-hour eating window) and work your way up from there to one of these intermittent fasting plans.
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