CoQ10: Everything You Need To Know About This Powerful Antioxidant
There are a few supplements that almost everyone can benefit from (we're looking at you, probiotics), and there are others that are really worth the money if you have a specific condition or ailment that your body needs support to work though. On this list of supplements that really shine is Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10).
If you're considering supplementing with it—or if you're just beginning your research into its uses in benefits—you've come to the right place. Here's what you need to know about it.
What is CoQ10?
CoQ10 is a fat-soluble antioxidant1 found in almost every cell of your body. It comes in two forms—ubiquinone and ubiquinol—and your body produces it naturally, although your levels do drop as you get older.
Remember: Antioxidants are substances that help break down free radicals, which are molecules produced in the body that can cause damage. Free radicals are natural by-products of some cellular reactions, but things like too much alcohol and smoking can cause free radicals to build up, and this is bad news for your body.
According to Robin Berzin, M.D., an integrative medicine physician and founder of Parsley Health, "When there are too many free radicals floating around, these highly reactive entities damage the healthy parts of your body they come in contact with. When free radicals come into contact with DNA, they can damage it, even causing mutations that lead to cancer. Free radicals also play a role in heart disease, stroke, arthritis, alcoholic liver damage, and even the aging process."
What does CoQ10 do?
There are a lot of different uses for CoQ10: As mentioned, it's an antioxidant, which means it can find and neutralize free radicals and manage oxidative stress in the body.
But but one of its major roles in the body is to help convert the food we eat into energy to power our bodies and brain. It's specifically used in the mitochondria, or "powerhouse" of the cell, where CoQ10 transports electrons in your mitochondrial pathways, which in turn produces energy.
Health benefits of CoQ10.
However, the effects of CoQ10 do not end at energy production. In fact, researchers think it may be able to help with conditions like heart disease, immune function, diabetes, cognition, and even migraines because of its antioxidant activity, effect on cellular health, and ability to prevent blood clots.
Here are a few of the exciting areas of research when it comes to this antioxidant:
Can support energy production.
Energy conversion in the body is one of those things we rarely really think about, but it's crucial to our overall health. We can eat all the amazing, nutritious foods we want, but if our bodies can't take those nutrients and convert them into usable energy—a process that takes place inside our cells and has everything to do with the mitochondria—we aren't going to get very far.
What are mitochondria? Frank Lipman, M.D., an integrative medicine physician, tells mbg at our revitalize event in 2017: "The mitochondria are power plants in the cells that turn your food and oxygen into energy in the form of ATP. These mitochondria power the biochemical reactions in your cells."
Dysfunctions in the mitochondria can majorly affect your health (and may explain why you're tired all the time). Ilene Ruhoy, M.D., an integrative neurologist, says that CoQ10 is a mainstay in mitochondrial support, because "Coenzyme Q10 carries the electrons that are needed to make the complex chain of enzymes work." The take-home message? Energy production and CoQ10 are intricately connected.
Can manage heart disease.
There is some research to support the idea that people with advanced heart failure symptoms might have low levels of CoQ10, and one study found that patients who took CoQ10 for two years had improved symptoms and a reduced risk of major cardiovascular issues.2 Another clinical trial found that those who supplemented with CoQ10 for a year were hospitalized less frequently for heart failure and experienced fewer serious complications3.
In other words: Talking to your doctor about CoQ10 does have some scientific validity behind it.
Can help with blood pressure.
According to cardiologist Joel Kahn, M.D., "a group called the Cochrane Database Review looked at studies of CoQ10 for hypertension and found it caused an average 11 mmHg BP drop,4 which is similar to many prescription medications." Another meta-analysis found that CoQ10 had the ability to lower blood pressure5 in patients with hypertension.
Other studies, however, have reported no differences in blood pressure compared to a placebo6, so more research is necessary. Of course, you should always talk to your doctor before starting any supplement regime.
Can help with fertility.
Can improve side effects from statin drugs.
Can support brain health.
Some studies have shown that people with cognitive disorders have lower levels of CoQ10 in their blood than people with healthy brain function. Other research has suggested that supplementing might slow deterioration in cognition11 for people with Parkinson's disease, but more research is needed on the effects of this antioxidant on cognitive function and brain health.
Can help with migraines.
Can manage gum disease.
According to Joel Kahn, M.D., CoQ10 levels may be low in people with gum disease,14 and some research has suggested that boosting levels by taking supplements or applying it topically can help speed gum healing. One study in particular shows that patients who supplemented with CoQ10 had reduced gingival inflammation15 than the control group.
CoQ10 Side effect & interactions.
Since CoQ10 is made naturally in your body, it generally has a high safety profile.16 No studies have uncovered any serious side effects17 of supplementing with CoQ10, but there may be some possible side effects18, which include—but are not limited to—insomnia, rashes, nausea, upper abdominal pain, sensitivity to light, dizziness, heartburn, and fatigue and headaches.
CoQ10 also has the potential to interact with chemotherapy medications, blood pressure medications, blood-thinning medications, and beta-blockers—making them more or less effective. (Another reason to always talk to your doctor first.)
And whenever you take a new supplement, it's a great idea to keep a diary or log of how you feel each day to see if you're experiencing any changes, positive or negative.
How to choose a CoQ10 supplement.
If you're interested in supplementing with CoQ10, you might be overwhelmed by the sheer number of choices in front of you. You are not alone! While the supplement industry is regulated to some degree by the FDA, responsibilities like quality control and good sourcing practices fall largely into the hands of the supplement manufacturer.
If you're working with an integrative or functional medicine practitioner who has training with supplements and herbs, you might have them recommend a specific brand. Or keep these guidelines in mind to find one that you trust.
1. Dosage and form.
Is your supplement in the most bioavailable form for your condition, and is the dosage correct? First, look at the numbers on the label and see if they match the dose agreed upon by you and your health care professional (for CoQ10, typical doses for adults range between 30 and 200 milligrams for specific conditions).
CoQ10 will most likely come in the form of coenzyme Q10, but it might also say ubiquinol or ubiquinone. For reference: Ubiquinol is the most bioavailable form19, accounting for 90% of the CoQ10 in the blood. Ubiquinone must be converted to ubiquinol in the body before it's absorbed.
2. Storage and expiration date.
Make sure you're storing your supplement correctly: Does it need to be refrigerated or kept out of the sun? These details will change depending on how the supplement was manufactured, so just make sure you read the label and follow the directions so you know you're getting the most bang for your buck.
In general, supplements with expiration dates are a good sign; this means the company is taking the time to understand how the nutrient profile of the supplement degrades over time and is guaranteeing that it will maintain its potency until the expiration date.
3. Extra ingredients.
It's really important to read the ingredient list, because some unsightly characters can find their way into your supplements if you don't know what to look for. A great supplement won't contain artificial colors or artificial sweeteners.
Many supplements also have organic, gluten-free, vegan, non-GMO, or other declarations right on the bottle. If it doesn't explicitly say a supplement is free of a certain ingredient, you might want to play it safe with another brand.
4. Third-party certifications.
A third-party certification is when a company has an independent organization monitor the quality control of their product. Generally, if a company does this, they will have an NSF sticker right on the label. These certifications are more expensive, so smaller supplement companies are less likely to have them, which is understandable. Just make sure they are doing what they can to be transparent about the way they monitor quality.
Another way to evaluate a specific supplement is to check out the Consumer Lab website. They test different supplements for quality and potency and give them a pass-or-fail score.
5. Company best practices.
Some other good signs when it comes to supplements include total transparency when it comes to how they label, manufacture, and test their products. If you call them on the phone they should be able to answer questions like where they source ingredients from (if it's from a farm, ask where it's located and whether or not it's organic) and what materials they use to make the capsules.
In addition, a supplement company that invests their time and money in research—or better yet, has teamed up with a university or hospital—in trying to increase the scientific data supporting their products is also a good sign.
Lastly, a supplement company should encourage you to work with a professional because while supplements typically use herbal ingredients, they can still interact with medications you're taking or cause allergic reactions.
Still have questions? Here's a more in-depth look at what you should know before you buy a supplement or check out these resources:
How to take CoQ10.
CoQ10 is fat-soluble, so typically it's best take it as a capsule with a meal. But because it can cause insomnia for some18, experts may advise you avoid taking it at night. Some experts may say that gels are better for absorption, but CoQ10 is also available as a hard-shell capsule, in an oral spray, as a tablet, and it's even sometimes added to skin care products because of its high antioxidant content.
Foods high in CoQ10.
Before you go out and buy a supplement, you should know that there are various foods that are naturally high in CoQ10. Although only about 25% of your CoQ10 levels22 come from food intake, consuming antioxidants through food is never a bad idea. So what foods are highest in this nutrient? Here's a list to get you started:
- Oily fish: Fish like salmon, tuna, sardines, and mackerel are high in antioxidant CoQ10 and are also high in healthy fats.
- Organ meats: Liver and kidney meats also have high levels of coenzyme Q10.
- Vegetables: Veggies like spinach, broccoli, and cauliflower naturally contain high levels of this antioxidant.
- Legumes: Peanuts and soybeans are the best non-animal sources of the substance.
Unlike vitamin D or other nutrients, CoQ10 deficiencies are not that common in the general population. That being said, your body's natural CoQ10 production does decrease as you age, and deficiencies have been related to some specific conditions, so for some people, getting their daily CoQ10 from their body's natural production and foods might not be enough—which is where a supplement might come in handy.
CoQ10 is a powerful antioxidant with a range of health benefits. If you're thinking about implementing this powerful player into your routine, make sure you've read up on CoQ10, talked with your doctor of medical provider about dosing and possible interactions with any medications your taking, and make sure to find a supplement that you trust.
Gretchen Lidicker is an mbg health contributor, content strategist, and the author of CBD Oil Everyday Secrets: A Lifestyle Guide to Hemp-Derived Health and Wellness and Magnesium Everyday Secrets: A Lifestyle Guide to Epsom Salts, Magnesium Oil, and Nature's Relaxation Mineral. She holds a B.S. in biology and earned her master’s degree in physiology with a concentration in complementary and alternative medicine from Georgetown University.