Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): We Explain The Major Skin Care Benefits
As ingredients like retinol and vitamin C steal the skin care spotlight, coenzyme Q10 has quietly entered beauty space. After all, it is an antioxidant that works "behind the scenes." Yet it is a skin care ingredient that does wonders—both internally and topically.
Yet, many people are unaware of how this nutrient exactly works, and why it's so important. Here's our deep dive into the powerful properties of coenzyme Q10.
What is coenzyme q10 (CoQ10)?
Coenzyme q10 (CoQ10) is a fat-soluble compound that's found in all your cells. It's known as a "coenzyme" because it's needed for other enzymes to function. It's kind of like that one bestie you can't do certain things without.
Your cells need CoQ10 to produce energy1. Specifically, it's used in the mitochondria, or the "powerhouse" of the cell. Here, electrons move along chemical pathways to make energy. CoQ10 transports electrons in these pathways, making it an essential player in the game. The energy produced by these pathways is then used for normal cellular functions, including those involved in skin health.
CoQ10 is also a potent antioxidant. Furthermore, it's the only fat-soluble antioxidant2 naturally made by the human body. But your levels drop as you get older. And while it's found in some foods—like fish, peanuts, and broccoli—it's difficult to get enough through the diet. Only about 25% of your CoQ10 levels3 come from food intake.
Fortunately, taking CoQ10 supplements can help support your natural levels. This is especially important if you're looking to fine-tune your beauty routine and improve your skin from the inside out. Besides, there's a reason this superstar ingredient has become increasingly popular in the wellness world. With growing awareness of internal skin health, more and more people are paying attention to the impact of cellular beauty.
While ingesting it can provide systemic affects, topical applications can improve the levels found in the skin cells. Research shows that applying it as part of a formulation significantly improved levels found in skin cells1—while also boosting the skin's free radical-fighting abilities. So if you're looking for skin care benefits, we recommend finding products as well.
What are the skin care benefits?
As a powerful antioxidant and electron transporter, CoQ10 has been found to play a major role in healthy skin. Most research has focused on dietary supplements, but there's also evidence that topical application can be very beneficial, too. Let's look at how CoQ10 can elevate your skin health:
It protects the skin from oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress occurs when harmful molecules called free radicals build up, surpassing the level of antioxidants in your body. It's also your skin's worst enemy. According to board-certified dermatologist Kenneth Mark, M.D., oxidative stress is the leading cause of chronic inflammation in the skin. It promotes collagen breakdown and hinders skin cell function4, too. "At its worst, oxidative [stress] can also damage DNA and cause pre-cancers and cancers," adds Mark.
Enter the almighty CoQ10. Like other antioxidants, it neutralizes free radicals by generously donating an electron. It also protects against lipid peroxidation5, a process by which free radicals damage cell membranes. To top it off, CoQ10 protects the membranes of mitochondria and regenerates other antioxidants, like vitamins C and E—both of which are just as important for healthy skin.
It reduces the appearance of wrinkles.
If you're looking for an internal approach to wrinkles, turn to CoQ10. As an antioxidant, it protects the skin from UV radiation, one of the main sources of oxidative stress in the skin. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation can lead to premature skin aging—known as photoaging—and degrade and disorganize collagen fibers. It also destroys fibroblasts, which are cells that produce collagen proteins (and help heal wounds). The result is fine lines and wrinkles, says Mark.
Normally, your skin uses antioxidants—like CoQ10—to defend itself from UV radiation. But as your levels decrease over time, replenishing them is key. Research6 has found that topical CoQ10 can significantly decrease facial wrinkles. Similarly, another study7 found that CoQ10 supplements reduce wrinkles and lines while enhancing skin smoothness.
It energizes your skin cells.
So, let's talk about cellular energy. According to board-certified dermatologist Hadley King, M.D., every single one of your cells needs energy to properly function. This includes important skin cells like fibroblasts (which make collagen) and keratinocytes (which make keratin). However, as CoQ10 decreases with age, so does mitochondrial activity and energy formation1. And without enough energy, the function of your skin cells will decline, leading to sagging skin and wrinkles.
To support your skin cells' energy needs, fuel up on CoQ10. For starters, this gives mitochondria the tools they need to energize cells and repair damage due to stress, notes Mark. Secondly, as an antioxidant, it safeguards energy pathways by combating free radicals. How's that for double duty?
It might support wound healing.
Though free radicals (understandably) get a bad reputation, they're helpful in small amounts. During the wound healing process, for example, they're needed to defend against harmful bacteria. The problem is when free radicals build up and cause oxidative stress, causing wound healing to become impaired, says King.
On the flip side, "[Reducing] oxidative stress can accelerate wound healing," notes King—and there's some evidence that CoQ10 can do just that. In an animal study8, topical CoQ10 facilitated collagen formation and reduced inflammation during healing. "It does this by inhibiting enzymes that damage collagen via oxidative stress, [which] tilts the soft tissue in favor of collagen formation," says Mark. Another animal study9 found similar results, observing a link between faster wound healing and CoQ10 application. And though more human studies are necessary, CoQ10 is anecdotally reported to be a stellar treatment for wound management.
How do you use it?
CoQ10 is available in topical products and as a dietary supplement.
In its topical form, CoQ10 is usually found in products like serums, eye creams, facial moisturizers, body products, and hand creams. It works well as a skin care topical as it is stable and plays well with other ingredients.
Certain antioxidants (ahem, vitamin C) are easily deactivated by other ingredients, the atmosphere, or simply by time—and so while they are beneficial in their own right, they may not be the most reliable ingredient for some formulations. For a bonus: look for formulations that also have other antioxidants, in tandem with CoQ10, as it can actually boost the free radical fighting abilities
As for CoQ10 supplements? Since CoQ10 is fat-soluble, it's best to consume supplements with fat10, which improves its absorption. CoQ10 supplements are also generally considered safe and rarely cause side effects. Yet, it's still a good idea to pay attention to how you feel after taking CoQ10 (or any supplement, for that matter). If CoQ10 does cause side effects, they are usually mild and might include stomach discomfort, nausea, dizziness, and headaches.
If you're interested in taking CoQ10 supplements, look for a product that has been tested for purity and composition. This is usually indicated by a seal of approval on the packaging. You can also ask your primary care physician or dermatologist for a personal recommendation.
The bottom line.
CoQ10 is a potent antioxidant found naturally in our bodies but declines with age. It supports our mitochondrial function, aiding cellular energy. It also supports against oxidative damage. You can use the active in topical or supplement form.
Kirsten Nunez is a health and lifestyle journalist based in Beacon, New York. She has a Master of Science in Nutrition from Texas Woman's University and Bachelor of Science in Dietetics from SUNY Oneonta. Kirsten specializes in nutrition, fitness, food, and DIY; her work has been featured in a variety of publications, including eHow, SparkPeople, and international editions of Cosmopolitan. She also creates recipes for food product packaging.