Echinacea: Health Benefits, Uses, Risks & How To Take It
If immunity is top-of-mind for you right now—you're certainly not alone. We're fans of the basic healthy lifestyle factors, like eating a nutrient-rich diet, exercising regularly, and getting high-quality sleep to help promote your overall health and immune system. But as we approach cold and flu season, is there anything you should consider to give your body a little extra support?
To get that boost, people often suggest supplementing with echinacea. But does it actually work? Here, doctors and nutritionists break down what we know about the herb.
What is echinacea?
Echinacea, also known as the North American coneflower or purple coneflower, is an herbal plant in the same family as the daisy.
There are nine species of the flowering plant, all of which were discovered and used medicinally by Native Americans in the Great Plains region. More than 400 years ago, it was used to treat burns, aches, and some infections1.
More recently, naturopathic doctor Alexis Shields, N.D., recommends echinacea to help stave off the common cold and support immune function.
Benefits of echinacea:
It's a good source of antioxidants.
Echinacea contains phenolic compounds, which are a type of antioxidant that helps to protect against oxidative stress damage2 and infections, functional medicine doctor Tiffany Lester, M.D., tells mbg.
More specifically, one species of echinacea (3echinacea purpurea3) contains alkylamides3, which helps stimulate the immune system and provide anti-inflammatory effects.
It may support the immune response.
Echinacea has long been touted for its anecdotal immune-supporting benefits—although there aren't a lot of studies to confirm these claims.
While it's not fully clear how echinacea supports the immune system, registered dietitian Titilayo Ayanwola, MPH, R.D., L.D., says it may have the ability to enhance immunity by activating and stimulating immune cells4 such as macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells.
This can help reduce the duration and severity of viral infections and other illnesses, integrative medicine doctor Bindiya Gandhi, M.D., says.
It has anti-inflammatory properties.
Because of the antioxidants in echinacea, it also contains anti-inflammatory benefits, especially in the face of certain bacteria.
"Bacteria causes common symptoms of upper respiratory infections, such as sore throat, cough, and inflammation," Ayanwola explains. "Echinacea, through its anti-inflammatory properties, may reverse inflammation caused by bacteria5 and can potentially reduce the length and severity of upper respiratory infections," she adds.
Anti-inflammatory benefits have also been studied for their ability to lower the risk of neurodegenerative disorders6, like Alzheimer's disease.
It might help your skin—when used topically.
When used topically, the antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties of echinacea may help treat certain skin conditions7, like acne, psoriasis, and eczema, Ayanwola says. "It also hydrates skin8 by retaining moisture and reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles," she adds.
Possible side effects of echinacea.
When it's used moderately, echinacea is considered safe, and most people can tolerate it well. But in some cases, it can lead to unwanted side effects.
"People who have previously had a negative reaction or allergic reaction to echinacea, or have an active chronic autoimmune condition, need to consult with their physician before taking echinacea," Shields says. In these instances, echinacea may lead to rashes or itchy skin.
Some people may experience gastrointestinal issues, like nausea or upset stomach. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, as well as anyone taking other medications, should talk to their doctor before taking an herbal supplement, Shields recommends.
How to take echinacea and recommended dosage.
The compounds that help support immunity are found in the root, flowers, and leaves of the echinacea purpurea plant, Shields says. It can be taken in supplement capsule, tablet, or tincture form, as well as in a tea.
At the onset of a cold, Gandhi recommends taking echinacea for seven to 14 days to strengthen the immune system and help fight the infection.
Since herbs and supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there is no standard recommended dosage for echinacea. However, Shields says a typical dose is 300 to 500 mg of dried herb in a capsule or tablet, or 2.5 to 5 mL of liquid extract. In both cases, she recommends taking it up to three times daily.
If that doesn't feel right for you, Lester says to "start low and go slow to see how your body responds."
Echinacea is an herbal plant with a variety of anti-inflammatory and immune-supporting benefits. The supplement can be taken in tea, tincture, tablet, or capsule form to help stave off the common cold. Though it's not supported by the FDA, experts say it is generally safe and well-tolerated. As with any supplement, you may want to consider speaking with your medical care practitioner before trying something new.
Abby Moore is an editorial operations manager at mindbodygreen. She earned a B.A. in Journalism from The University of Texas at Austin and has previously written for Tribeza magazine. She has covered topics ranging from regenerative agriculture to celebrity entrepreneurship. Moore worked on the copywriting and marketing team at Siete Family Foods before moving to New York.