12 Ways Social Media Affects Relationships, From Research & Experts
Romanticizing other people's relationships is not a new concept (thanks, rom-coms). Unlike a movie script, though, social media shows real couples living real lives. But can looking at these seemingly perfect couples online interfere with our own romantic relationships?
Is social media bad for relationships?
Social media, if used sparingly, is not necessarily bad for relationships. Research has shown social media use can both positively and negatively affect relationships, depending on how it's used. For example, social media can contribute to unhealthy comparison and unrealistic expectations for what relationships are supposed to be like, and couples may spend more time curating an "image" of who they are rather than focusing on the relationship itself. Social media use has also been linked to poor body image and depression, which can negativelyaffect relationships.
Negative effects on relationships:
1. Social media can create unrealistic expectations.
Although there are some useful resources shared via social media, "what you will mostly see are curated and filtered posts that only highlight unrealistic images of what a relationship is," says sex and behavioral therapist Chamin Ajjan, M.S., LCSW, A-CBT.
Attempting to measure up can distract you and your partner from the relationship. Inevitably, real life won't look like the endless highlight reels we see on social media, which can lead to disappointment in either yourself, your partner, or both.
"You may begin to feel jealous of how much someone posts about their partner and feel resentment toward your partner for not doing the same," Ajjan says. "The lifestyles you are scrolling through may change how satisfied you are in your relationship because they seem to be better than what you have."
2. It can lead to jealousy.
Some research has linked social media use with increased jealousy and relationship dissatisfaction in college students. If you are prone to jealousy because of an insecure attachment style, research says you may be more likely to get stuck in a cycle of endless scrolling to keep an eye on your partner's activities.
People may get upset seeing their partner liking or commenting on other people's posts, stoking concerns that their partner is interested in other people (or worse, is already cheating). The use of Facebook, in particular, has been shown to increase feelings of suspicion and jealousy in romantic relationships among college students. "This effect may be the result of a feedback loop, whereby using Facebook exposes people to often ambiguous information about their partner that they may not otherwise have access to," one study writes.
For example, cookies and Facebook algorithms can cause a partner's "hidden" interests to pop up on their feed. The desire to find more information about them can perpetuate further social media use and feelings of mistrust.
(Notably, many of these studies have been conducted on college students, so it’s possible that there would be differences among older couples.)
3. Excessive social media use is linked to couples fighting more.
A 2013 study found that, among couples who had been together for less than three years, spending more time on Facebook was linked with more "Facebook-related conflict" and more negative relationship outcomes.
One study found that those who are dating people who overshare on social media tend to have lower relationship satisfaction (though positive posts about the relationship itself every now and then seemed to mediate that effect).
4. Social media might make daily life seem less interesting.
The drool-worthy image of a couple on vacation can trigger feelings of envy, which can keep you from appreciating where you are in the present moment.
"Social media tends to ignore the gritty and mundane parts of a couple's lives," says Ken Page, LCSW, psychotherapist and host of The Deeper Dating Podcast. Struggles, chores, compromise, and intimacy in the midst of challenges—these small mini triumphs are valuable, he says. Just remember: A vacation can make you feel happy, but it's the everyday moments that lead to ultimate satisfaction.
When relationships end, it is so often those tiny, mundane moments that evoke the deepest nostalgia, Page adds.
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5. It can distract you from spending quality time with your partner.
Though internet addiction and Facebook addiction are not considered mental health disorders by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), researchers recognize both as dependence issues, which can interfere with quality of life.
The more we become hooked on the dopamine rush of social media, Page says, the less engaged or excited we will feel for the quieter, simpler moments of life. "But those are often the moments when our loved one reveals something personal and intimate," he explains.
Next time you and your partner are together and both focused on your phones, bring awareness to that. "Practice valuing real-time connection over internet connection," he says. This can help increase emotional intimacy.
6. It can affect our mental health.
Even though social media is meant to promote connection, multiple studies have linked social media use with loneliness, mood disorders, and poor self-esteem. People with preexisting mental health issues may also be more susceptible to social comparisons, due to a negative cognitive bias, one study found. On the flip side, lowering social media use has been shown to reduce loneliness and depression symptoms.
Though these issues are more individualistic than relational, they can bleed into romantic relationships. When a partner is suffering from mental health issues, they may be closed off to intimacy or become codependent.
7. It can lead to body image issues.
The filtered and edited images you see all over social media can cause insecurities about your own body to surface, Ajjan says. Several studies have linked social media use and body image issues.
A person's body image issues can significantly affect their relationships. One Journal of the International Society for Sexual Medicine study shows that heterosexual women with body image issues have a harder time becoming sexually aroused. Another study found the way wives perceive their own sexual attractiveness, based on negative body image, directly affects the marital quality of both the wife and the husband.
In other words, these insecurities triggered by social media can interfere with emotional and physical intimacy and the overall quality of a relationship.
8. It can make us more narcissistic.
Excessive social media use is linked to narcissistic traits in some cases. Research confirms that addictive social media use reflects a need to feed the ego and an attempt to improve self-esteem, both of which are narcissistic traits. And different types of social media play into different aspects of narcissism.
For example, people who frequently tweet or post selfies may be displaying grandiosity, one of the common traits of narcissism. Since you can be narcissistic without having a personality disorder, it's possible to develop these traits over time—and at least one small study has found excess social media use may be a trigger.
And of course, being in a relationship with a narcissist is not healthy and can lead to trauma later on.
Positive effects and benefits:
1. Social media helps single people meet each other.
In the digital age we live in, it's not uncommon for people to meet online or through dating apps—in fact, it may be more common. A 2017 survey found 39% of heterosexual couples reported meeting their partner online, compared to just 22% in 2009. A later study analyzing the results found that "Internet meeting is displacing the roles that family and friends once played in bringing couples together."
According to a recent Tinder survey, online dating can be especially helpful for the LGBTQ+ community. Of 1,000 LGBTQ+ adults who took the survey, 80% say online dating and dating apps have helped their community, 52% feel more comfortable being themselves, and 45% say it's easier to explore their identity.
2. It can keep you connected to your partner.
Whether it's sending a funny meme over Instagram or taking a quick Snapchat, social media is an easy way for couples to interact throughout the day in a fun, low-pressure manner.
This is particularly helpful for couples who don't live together and people in long-distance relationships. According to a survey published in the Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking journal, young adults in long-distance romantic relationships are better able to maintain them if they're using social networking sites.
People who have their partner in their profile photo or have their relationship status public on Facebook also tend to be happier with their relationship, for what that's worth.
3. You can learn about relationships from experts.
"There are plenty of accounts that offer up good information to help develop and maintain a healthy connection," Ajjan says. "There is a lot of good information on social media from relationship bloggers, psychotherapists, and many others that highlight how to improve your relationship."
As long as it's coming from a place of growth and not comparison, this type of social media can motivate you to work on parts of the relationship that have been neglected, she explains.
4. It's like a time capsule of memories.
Social media platforms have practically replaced printed photograph albums as a place to store and share our memories. In this sense, Page says social media can be used to honor the activities you do and the things you create together.
Unlike a physical photo album, social media has the added component of followers. "In this way, social media can be an institutionalized way to express love publicly and invite community support," he says, "both of which enhance a couple's ability to flourish."
The bottom line.
Scrolling through social media all day is, unfortunately, not a hard habit to pick up. While these platforms can offer helpful resources, they can also lead to jealousy, mental health issues, and unrealistic expectations in relationships. On top of that, the act of being on your phone constantly can distract from intimacy with a partner.
"Social media is not all bad," Ajjan says, "but if you find yourself comparing your relationship to what you are seeing online, it may be helpful to unfollow accounts that make you feel bad and focus more on accounts that make you feel empowered in your relationship."
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