Let's say you just had an incredible night with the new person you're seeing. The conversation crackled; the hours over dinner flew by. Come Monday, though, you start to feel that something isn't right.
They come up with excuses that strike you as flimsy, and they start responding to your texts with a detached "haha" or "nice." You end up feeling anxious, confused, and lonely when the weekend rolls around.
If you're dating someone who backtracks after deepening intimacy with you, it's possible that they have an avoidant attachment style.
Whether that makes them a viable partner is neither here nor there; if you're interested in learning how to support and love someone whose personality aligns this way, you can learn from psychological studies on the matter.
What is an avoidant attachment style?
The avoidant attachment style is the second most common out of the four types, and it involves a tendency to form insecure relationships out of a desire to remain independent. According to a 2012 study in The Dysregulated Adult, a person might develop an avoidant attachment style if their early attempts at human connection and affection are overlooked or rejected1.
That means your partner's actions have roots in experiences they likely had long before they met you. The back-and-forth has much more to do with them than it does with you.
Signs you might be dating an avoidant
Here are five signs that you may be dating an avoidant. None of them are surefire proof on their own, but together, these indicators point to your partner harboring a particular relationship with emotional intimacy.
Also, people's attachment styles are usually not black-and-white, so they may have tendencies that also indicate other attachment styles—it's one of the things people get wrong about attachment styles.
They like spending time together, but they don't want to talk about what it means
A person with an avoidant attachment style is going to crave the feeling of being loved and supported, just like anyone else. The key difference is that they'll also feel a compulsion to distance themselves from those they're getting close to.
In their landmark book on attachment theory, Attached: The New Science of Adult Attachment and How It Can Help You Find—and Keep—Love, Amir Levine, M.D., and Rachel Heller, M.A., wrote that avoidants push their partners away, not because of a lack of interest but because intimacy is a trigger for them.
In an avoidant's mind, feeling increasingly dependent on any one person opens them up for possible pain and rejection, and this can play out in a romantic relationship as mixed signals. If you feel that your partner's emotions toward you are hot and cold, their attachment style might be the root cause of the confusion.
They seem uncomfortable when you express negative emotions
In a 2017 paper on apologies and attachment styles2, researchers found that those exhibiting avoidant attachment behaviors "tend to use distancing strategies when they, their partners, or their relationships are distressed." To you, this might seem like your partner is avoiding conflict or being passive-aggressive.
It may also manifest in normal conversations. If you say that you've been having a rough day, or if you get frustrated with something other than your partner, and your partner responds as if they're being attacked, that could be an indicator that they're an avoidant.
On the surface, it might appear that your partner isn't interested in having "real" conversations with you, but in reality, they may be so thoroughly conditioned by their upbringing and prior experiences with inconsistent love that they react to any negative emotion with anxiety and fear.
They never ask you for help or for small favors
An avoidant suspects deep down that everyone in their life is going to disappoint or abandon them. In their 2017 paper, Jeffry Simpson, Ph.D., and W. Steven Rholes, Ph.D., stated that avoidant people are less willing than the average person3 to rely on others or have others rely on them.
Avoidants will often neglect to offer help or support when their loved ones express a need for it, not necessarily because they don't recognize the need or because they don't care. It's more likely that they've connected the idea of support with extreme vulnerability in their heads; they believe that showing weakness is embarrassing because their earliest memories of asking for help ended badly.
This might keep your avoidant partner from asking too much of you, and it also might come across as them having ice in their veins. If they do agree to do you a favor, they might downplay its meaning and act irritated when you try to thank them.
They're not dialed into your emotions, and communication is difficult
In the same study, researchers found that avoidant partners were less accurate than the average when they tried to guess at their partners' internal emotional state. Stressors only worsened this, meaning that after an argument, or while embroiled in an unpleasant situation, avoidants were even less likely to decipher their partner's words or behaviors correctly.
If your partner seems to assume you're upset when you're not, or if they step away from you after an argument and prefer to sweep things under the rug rather than discuss them, they may be an avoidant.
In general, dating an avoidant can feel as though you are speaking two different dialects, though your partner may find it easier to get on your wavelength if your relationship isn't rocky.
You haven't really seen them cope with loss at all
According to an attachment overview paper published by the University of Illinois, avoidant participants in a study showed the same level of emotional and physiological distress when asked to discuss and consider losing their romantic partners. However, they didn't verbally report their emotional state to researchers, and even more interestingly, they were able to suppress their physiological responses to the concept of loss.
If you've seen your partner live through a difficult situation, like perhaps the loss of another loved one, a professional rejection, or a traumatic experience, and if they seemed oddly cold to you, they may not be unusually resilient. It could be a sign that they've learned to suppress their vulnerable emotions over time.
How to support and love your avoidant partner
Contrary to popular belief, it's possible to have a romantic relationship with an avoidant. In fact, many people change their attachment styles over time, based on their life experiences, so you don't have to think of your partner's mindset as permanent.
It's their responsibility to change their attachment style, of course, if that's what they'd like to do, but you can support them and help meet their emotional needs in the meantime:
Stress that you're doing kind things because you enjoy it, not because they're needy
When an avoidant receives love or favors or gifts, they'll often tell themselves that accepting these things is a sign of their own weakness. They'll also fear becoming a burden on you because they ultimately fear tiring you out and chasing you away.
Keep this dynamic in mind when you do little favors for your partner; it's not a fun situation if you're teasing them about forgetting something. If it's cold and you offer them your jacket, don't make a big deal out of dressing for the weather.
If you grab them a beer while you wait at the bar for your date to start, don't poke fun at them for being late. They will always take that playful criticism and run with it in their heads.
Listen without judging or taking things too personally
If you're lucky enough to have created enough emotional intimacy with your avoidant partner that they'll share their struggles with you, be very careful with your response. You'll have to tiptoe between assuring them that things are OK without playing into their fears.
Remind them regularly, in different ways, that you enjoy them
A lot can come from simply expressing your interest to an avoidant as plainly as you can. If you're in a relationship already, make a point to compliment them in simple ways throughout the day. You may not get affection back in equal measure, but a simple "I love you" without strings will likely calm that storm of fear raging inside them.
Improve your own emotional intelligence and work on your habits
Though affirming your partner is important, you also need to take care to do it simply and succinctly. If you get the feeling that you might be suffocating your avoidant partner, or feel you are being too "needy," take some time for yourself. After all, even if you're dating an avoidant, you definitely have a constellation of unique needs and quirks that need looking after. And you can't love your partner without loving yourself.
Whatever is required in order to feel more secure in your attachment and identity, try to do that activity while you can. It might look like therapy, or meditation, or spending time with platonic friends.
Invest in your own independent lifestyle and allow them theirs
If you've read this far, you clearly care about the person you're dating. That's perfectly fine, although you've got quite a bit of work cut out for you if your partner truly is an avoidant. That's the bad news.
The good news is, most of the emotional work you should be doing in a relationship with an avoidant is the kind of processing a healthy person would do for any partner. It's just that you might need to be extra mindful of certain things.
If you believe you're dating someone who backtracks after deepening intimacy with you, it's possible that they have an avoidant attachment style.
While dating someone who's an avoidant isn't easy, it is possible. They may be able to change their attachment style over time with your support.
If you're unsure if your partner is an avoidant, or whether or not you have an avoidant attachment style, take this quick, 5-minute quiz to find out what your type is.
Emily Gaudette is a freelance writer and editor who has a literature and film studies degree from Bryn Mawr College. She has covered entertainment, sexuality, and relationships for Newsweek, SYFY, Glamour, Inverse, SELF, TV Guide, and more. She lives in Brooklyn.