Conversations around gender have evolved quite a bit over the years, and frankly, it's about time. There have never been two genders, and there is now a growing understanding that the gender binaries of "woman" and "man" are simply far too limiting and inaccurate.
These days, more and more people are stepping out of the binary and taking hold of more fitting terms to express themselves, including in ways sometimes described as gender nonconforming (GNC).
What does gender nonconforming mean?
The term "gender nonconforming" refers to identities, behaviors, and/or forms of expression used by people that don't conform to or align with traditional binary notions of gender, particularly norms around femininity and masculinity. There are many variations of gender nonconformity, also sometimes called gender variance or gender diversity, allowing people to get as specific and accurate about their gender as they desire or as much as they'd like to share with others.
Gender nonconforming is also sometimes considered an umbrella term that can apply to anyone that is not cisgender, says sexologist Carol Queen, Ph.D. For reference, someone who is cisgender is someone whose gender identity matches the sex they were assigned at birth. In some cases, usually in health and psychology research contexts, the term "transgender and gender nonconforming" or TGNC may be used to encompass all non-cisgender identities, but the acronym doesn't always fit.
"TGNC provides a broad umbrella for gender-spectrum understanding and care, but it might miss nuances of how various kinds of gender-nonconforming people understand themselves. Also, not everyone feels trans and GNC are that much alike, and so the acronym might feel to some like they're not sufficiently seen," Queen explains. Not all trans people are gender nonconforming, and not all gender-nonconforming people are trans.
Other terms used to describe people whose gender identity or expression doesn't fit with mainstream gender norms include nonbinary, gender-expansive, and gender-creative.
Understanding gender and gender norms.
To understand what it means to not conform to gender norms (aka being gender nonconforming), it's important to understand what gender and gender norms themselves are.
While sex is typically assigned at birth by a health care provider based on a handful of biological traits attached to reproduction, a person's gender is their innate, internal sense of being a woman, man, both, neither, a combination, or something else entirely, explains Anne Hodder-Shipp, multi-certified sex and relationships educator and founder of Everyone Deserves Sex Ed. Meanwhile, gender "norms" are any kind of societal expectation placed on people based solely on their genitals. These expectations run the gamut from a person's physical appearance, behaviors, interests, roles in life, family and professional roles, sexual desires, and interests, and more.
According to Hodder-Shipp, female gender norms often include:
- Being a nurturer and/or naturally maternal
- Being soft and gentle
- Being seen and not heard
- Being submissive and subservient
- Having long hair
- Wearing makeup and dresses
- Choosing dolls over trucks
- Standing in support roles (wife, secretary, nurse, executive assistant, etc.)
- Being good at home economics and bad at math and science
- Being submissive in bed
- Attracted to cisgender men
- Having boobs, a uterus, and menstruation
Male gender norms often include:
- Being the breadwinner
- Being unemotional (except when angry)
- Being a rational problem-solver
- Being hard, rugged, muscular, firm, and straight to the point
- Being in charge, a leader, and dominant
- Doesn't take orders, only gives orders
- Having short hair, facial hair
- Not focused on external appearance
- Opting for trucks over dolls
- Not being nurturing or naturally paternal
- Standing in leading roles (president, head of household, doctor, CEO, etc.)
- Being good at math, science, fixing stuff while bad at cleaning and home things
- Dominant in bed, hypersexual, wants sex all the time
- Attracted to cisgender women
- Having a big penis and two testicles
These gender norms are socially constructed, explains Hodder-Shipp, which means they're simply beliefs that have been upheld and prioritized by a culture or group ("often originating from a person or group who holds power," they add) for so long that they feel like scientific fact. Societal constructs only exist because people have decided they exist.
"It can make it difficult to challenge or question gender norms, and feel uncomfortable when they are challenged by others, because for many people, these norms have been a part of the ground they walk on and the foundation on which they've built their identity, homes, relationships, spiritual connection, and more," they tell mbg.
Gender nonconformity in practice.
Any behavior, attitude, or attribute that falls outside of binary gender norms or expectations can be considered nonconforming technically, Hodder-Shipp explains, but it's really up to the person and the intention behind it.
"For example, the way I behave in a group or the values I hold about relationships fall outside of gender norms often imposed on me, but that doesn't mean that I must now identify as gender nonconforming. I'm just being me," they say. "Sometimes when I am dressing for an event, however, I may intentionally select clothing or accessories that fall outside of what might be expected of my appearance. In this case, I'm intentionally nonconforming to expectations that society holds for folks who look like me, and it's the intent that makes it nonconforming and subversive."
According to Queen, other ways gender nonconforming could appear in practice include:
- When someone chooses a job or course of study according to their own interests and skills rather than gendered ideas of "women's work" or "men's work."
- When someone is open to a full range of emotions, regardless of what's expected for their gender.
- When a person does not restrict themselves to heterosexuality or doesn't let gendered ideas (for example, "a man is never penetrated") restrict their sexual options.
- When a person chooses their own pronouns and gender description.
Is gender nonconformity an identity?
"Yes, many people identify as gender nonconforming (GNC) as their gender identity," Hodder-Shipp says. "It's also a frame of mind and a form of social or physical expression that doesn't necessarily have to be tied directly to a person's gender identity. Anyone can be gender nonconforming, regardless of their identity, but many also connect to it as their gender identity."
Here are some definitions of some related terms, according to Hodder-Shipp.
An innate sense of being a woman, man, both, neither, a combination, or something else entirely. We define our gender identity, and it is based on how we feel, not on what our genitals look like.
The ways we express and communicate our gender identity, typically through physical presentation and behaviors such as clothing, hair, makeup, voice, posture, and more.
A person whose gender matches their sex assigned at birth, aka when the genitals you're born with on the outside represents how you feel on the inside.
A person whose gender identity doesn't match their sex assigned at birth, aka when how your body looks on the outside doesn't accurately represent how you feel on the inside. Being transgender can involve but does not require adjusting one's physical appearance and behavior to align with one's gender identity.
Also sometimes abbreviated as "enby," nonbinary is an expansive term that describes someone whose identity exists outside of the gender binary of man/woman, says Hodder-Shipp.
Typically describes someone whose gender varies over time. Gender-fluid folks may fluctuate among genders or express more than one gender at the same time.
An expansive term that can describe someone whose identity exists outside of traditional understandings or definitions of gender. In other words, not aligning with cisgender, heterosexual gender norms, in particular—though this can also be a bit more of an umbrella term (like the term "queer" alone) and may mean different things to different people.
This term describes a person whose identity expands far beyond the limitations of society's typical understanding or expectations of gender, says Hodder-Shipp.
This term describes a person who connects with and expresses their gender in ways that feel right to them in each moment, regardless of expectations, norms, or roles, and their broader, more flexible relationship to gender gives them a lot to work with, says Hodder-Shipp.
Am I gender nonconforming?
Trying to determine whether you are gender nonconforming can feel like a daunting thing, but it doesn't have to be. If the term feels good to you, if it affirms your experience of gender, then it's worth exploring. Labels are meant to support you in living your life as your best you, not limit you or put you in a box.
Hodder-Shipp says exploring our identity is a process, and there isn't a checklist that can help people determine if a term applies to them. A lot of the process involves connecting to how you feel in your mind and body when you say and hear these terms, especially when experimenting with using them yourself (and having close trusted friends use them with you).
"Keep in mind that much of this has to do with intention—if you are just being you and you have no connection to intentionally subverting or rejecting gender-related norms, then that's enough! Just keep being you. There is no pressure to use any terms or labels that don't feel quite right, even if they sound 'correct' on paper," they explain.
This can be a fluid process full of questions and uncertainty but also with some excitement, curiosity, and euphoria, so take the pressure off and just check in with yourself as you see how words and terms feel.
"Also keep in mind that choosing labels or words is not a requirement, and you don't ever have to find ones that feel perfect or accurate to describe yourself. If it feels more challenging than empowering to be in this exploratory place, or if the uncertainty feels unsafe for you, I recommend working with a therapist who specializes in gender (ideally someone who might identify as GNC or genderqueer themselves!) who can provide guidance in a safer and more intentional container," they add.
How to support gender-nonconforming people.
When it comes to supporting the folks in your life who are gender nonconforming, there are a few things you can do:
Learn bystander intervention.
Check your own biases.
Check your own gender biases and expectations and notice if/when you impose them on others, Hodder-Shipp says. Notice the words and language you use in your day-to-day, especially in relation to others. Do you use binary language, always referring to "men and women" instead of "people"? Do you unconsciously assume everyone is cisgender or heterosexual unless corrected, or unless someone specifically tells you their identity and orientation beforehand? How aware are you of gender expansiveness, and are there words and terms that are unfamiliar?
"Do the work of tracking your own emotional responses to the presence of gender-nonconforming people," Rae adds.
Educate yourself about gender issues so you can talk to others about them in an open way. Additionally, if someone you know is or might be GNC, let them guide you about pronouns and all the ways to talk about this stuff. Queen recommends just having great conversations with them if they are up for it! But also keep in mind that it isn't anyone's job to teach you all about things you could go learn about yourself to come to them with at least the basics. Then fine-tune for the specific person in front of you.
Queen says the most important thing is not to be judgmental or pressure people about gender. Teach your kids not to do it either since a lot of gender-based bullying happens among children, and it can be cruel. And speaking of children, Rae says, "if there are children in your life, try affirming their curiosity and experimentation around gender."
Additionally, remember that once you reject the most conservative gender norms, there is no one way to be a gendered person. So don't police others re: whether they are doing GNC "correctly." We are all on a spectrum, Queen says.
Finally, Hodder-Shipp says if the GNC person in your life gives you feedback or asks for changes in your language or behavior, especially if you make a mistake around them, the most supportive thing you can do is apologize, thank them, and move on. And try your best to avoid repeating the mistakes!
Stephanie Barnes is a freelance writer from Kingston, Jamaica. She studied Information Technology from the University of the Commonwealth Caribbean and spent several years as a front-end/iOS engineer. Her work has been featured at The Huffington Post, Healthline, The Lily, HelloGiggles, Business Insider, and more. She's passionate about all things mental health, technology, and binge-worthy television.