What Is Fluid Bonding & When Is It Safe For A Couple To Do It?
Fluid bonding and unprotected sex are related in some ways but quite different in others. One thing you should know right away, though, is fluid bonding is all about trust.
What is fluid bonding?
"Fluid bonding is where you and your lover(s) decide not to use barriers during your sexual experiences," says sexologist Marla Renee Stewart, M.A., and sex expert for adult wellness brand Lovers.
When sexual partners make this intentional decision, it means they forgo condoms, dental dams, internal condoms, and other kinds of preventive barriers during oral, anal, and vaginal sex and any kind of sexual touching. It can also mean the partners choose to share sex toys together without a barrier.
Because you exchange bodily fluids such as secretions, semen, ejaculate, and blood or saliva, fluid bonding increases the chances of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Why people decide to do it.
People choose to fluid bond for several reasons, says Stewart, including attempting to get pregnant or simply preferring the sensation of sex without barriers, with intentionality.
Couples often fluid bond to feel more connected and intimate, says Jenni Skyler, Ph.D., LMFT, CST, AASECT-certified sex therapist, and resident sexologist for Adam & Eve.
"For a couple who's really waited to do this, it can kind of denote a sense of commitment to the relationship as well," Skyler says. "And for couples who don't like the sensation of a barrier, [fluid bonding] eliminates that, should the couple be sexually exclusive."
Is it different from unprotected sex?
In practice, fluid bonding isn't different from unprotected sex, says Skyler. What separates the two is the connotation and intentionality around it. Rather than simply not engaging in safer sex practices with your partners or forgetting to use protection here and there, fluid bonding is an explicit choice sexual partners make to share each other's bodily fluids during sex.
"Usually, unprotected sex is just a sort of casual, barrier-less erotic experience without the communication and intention that we're doing this for a purpose," Skyler says, whether that reason is "to be more connected, [or to] have more sensation, intimacy or commitment."
Besides the intentional removal of the barrier, Skyler says another difference is how we communicate about it: "When people go to the lengths to call it 'fluid bonding,' then they have a language that has already brought awareness to the concept," which means they likely want to approach it responsibly.
Can you be safe while fluid bonding?
It's absolutely possible to explore fluid bonding safely, whether you have one partner or many—Skyler says it just comes down to your intentions and plans around STI testing, prevention, and management, as well as preventing unwanted pregnancy if applicable.
Usually, it's as simple as going to your local clinic together to get tested for STIs and sharing the results with each other, says Stewart, in addition to having open and transparent conversations about sexual exclusivity and STI management going forward.
Fluid bonding in monogamous relationships.
"A lot of folks who are monogamous tend to explore fluid bonding as a way to provide trust in one another around faithfulness and consider it to bring them closer to [each other]," Stewart tells mbg.
Still, it's important not to conflate being fluid-bonded with an immediate and automatic higher level of commitment in your relationship. It's also important to recognize there is still the potential for STI transmission if one partner cheats or has an undiagnosed or undisclosed STI.
As you have honest dialogue around what it means for you and your partner to be monogamously fluid-bonded, talk about how you'll work to protect each other against STIs and (for penile-vaginal sex) unwanted pregnancy.
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Fluid bonding for polyamorous partners.
Polyamory doesn't intrinsically increase the risks of STIs while fluid bonding. There are many types of ethical nonmonogamy structures, and as long as all sexual partners involved remain transparent and sexually exclusive within the unit, Skyler says it's completely possible to be safely fluid-bonded in polyamorous relationships.
Within polyamory, Stewart says people are usually upfront about who they're fluid-bonded with. Sometimes, partners will "close circuits of fluid bonding before vetting another metamour to join the ranks."
That said, when there are multiple partners involved, all it takes is one person to have a sexual experience outside of the group to put everyone else at risk for STIs. To avoid this, try implementing a rule where everyone in the polyamorous relationship (or interconnected relationships) has to consent to partners fluid bonding with people outside of the group.
What are the risks?
Without any protection methods, having many kinds of sex carries the risk of getting an STI. By sharing fluids and through skin-to-skin contact, partners can transmit chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, the herpes simplex virus (HSV), and more. No STI prevention method is 100% effective other than total abstinence, so there are risks with protected sex too—they just significantly increase when you fluid bond.
Having all partners involved get tested regularly can help make sure you're practicing fluid bonding safely. If any partners aren't STI-free, Skyler says it's still possible to fluid bond safely. "There doesn't have to be a stigma around that, and it's not the end of the world—what you want to do is track it."
Take a situation where you have or your partner has HSV, for example: "The person with herpes will track for an outbreak. During those outbreaks, go back to using a barrier, then fluid-bond the majority of the time," Skyler says.
Questions to ask before deciding to do it.
Before you dive headfirst into fluid bonding, you and your partner(s) should have "all the proper channels in place if something happens in a way [you didn't] intend."
Here are a few questions Stewart and Skyler say to ask yourself:
- Why do you want to fluid bond with your partner?
- Do you trust your partner to be transparent with you?
- Are you comfortable with the level of exclusivity involved in your relationship?
- Does everyone involved agree to exclusivity rules?
- Are you willing to deal with the consequences of your partner deciding to fluid bond with another person without your consent?
- How often will you get screened for STIs?
- What will you do with an unplanned pregnancy?
- Is keeping an unplanned pregnancy an option?
- Are you and/or your partner willing to track any existing STIs?
How to keep yourself and your partner(s) safe:
Get tested for STIs.
To protect everyone from STIs, get extensive STI screenings before you fluid bond, and get tested regularly afterward at a frequency your doctor recommends. For people with vaginas, make sure to get your Pap smears regularly to screen for HPV. When you get your results, be sure to share them with each other. If one partner is living with an STI, discuss together what that should mean for your sexual relationship, including what precautions may or may not be necessary to minimize the risk of transmission.
Consider alternative birth control options.
If you and a partner will be engaging in penis-in-vagina sex, it's important to also plan for how to prevent unintended or unwanted pregnancy. Even if you're forgoing barrier methods to enjoy fluid bonding together, Skyler recommends exploring other forms of birth control, such as vasectomy, hormonal birth control like the pill, or IUDs.
Communication is always key, and especially so when it comes to fluid bonding. In addition to being transparent about STI status and new sexual partners, Stewart says to have thorough conversations around expectations and needs in general and to share any past fluid-bonding experiences.
Set and respect each other's boundaries.
The decision you make about whether fluid bonding is right for you and your relationship is one you have to make together, and everyone involved has to consent. It might lead to some uncomfortable conversations, which is why it can help to explore the exclusivity of your monogamous or polyamorous relationship before fluid bonding to prevent unwanted outcomes.
Don't be afraid to shift your boundaries as you go, and remember that you can decide to stop fluid bonding completely at any time if you or a partner becomes uncomfortable or if circumstances simply change. When it comes to your body, you don't owe anyone anything.
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