The Ins & Outs Of Viscose Fabric + How To Shop It More Sustainably
Chances are, at least one item in your athleisure drawer is made from viscose. The soft, breathable fabric is a popular pick for activewear—but its cozy feel can come at an environmental cost. Here's what you need to know about viscose (also commonly referred to as rayon) and how to shop for it sustainably.
What is viscose?
Viscose fabric is made from cellulose that's been extracted from the bark, wood, or leaves of plants. It's most often made from bamboo, pine, or eucalyptus trees, but it can also be created from more unique plant products like corn husks, citrus byproducts, and sugar cane.
Viscose is most often used to make clothing (especially loungewear and activewear), but you'll also find it in home goods like sheets and bedding.
How viscose is made.
To make viscose, wood pulp is broken down and reformed through a series of physical and chemical reactions. First, the wood fiber is dissolved in a bath of strong chemicals (more on these below) until it becomes a soupy consistency. From there, cellulose is extracted and turned into a solid fiber that can be spun into yarn. So, while viscose is made from natural materials, it's a heavily processed fabric.
Properties of viscose.
The finished material tends to be super soft, breathable, durable, and moisture-wicking. It's also relatively affordable (viscose was actually created to be a cheaper alternative to silk in the early 20th century). Since it blends well, you'll often find it combined with materials like cotton, polyester, and hemp to increase the softness of a garment. Viscose also holds color for a long time and is relatively wrinkle-resistant.
The environmental impact of traditional viscose.
This semi-natural fabric comes with a few major environmental concerns. Starting from the raw materials side, upward of 150 million trees need to be logged every year to create viscose, making it a potential driver of illegal deforestation.
And as mentioned earlier, chemicals are then used to break down cellulose so it can be spun into viscose—some of which are toxic. One of the most ubiquitous, and dangerous, is carbon disulfide.
"[Carbon disulfide] is a powerful solvent that has been historically linked to causing hysteria in factory workers1," says Urska Trunk, a campaign manager at the Changing Markets Foundation, a European nonprofit that investigates and exposes irresponsible corporate practices.
Not only does the chemical pose an immediate health threat to workers, but it also pollutes surrounding communities.
When Changing Markets investigated some of the largest viscose suppliers in the world (most of which are located in Asia) they found that many of them were dumping untreated carbon disulfide wastewater into local lakes and rivers, threatening the livelihoods of those who lived downstream in the process.
That being said, cleaner ways to produce the material already exist. When viscose is made from trees from well-managed farms and treated using a closed-loop chemical process, Trunk says it has the potential to be a sustainable fiber.
How can viscose be sustainable?
There are a few groups working to clean up the viscose supply chain and convince companies to be more transparent about their manufacturing practices.
Canadian nonprofit Canopy, for example, is focused on helping brands ensure their viscose wood pulp hasn't been sourced from ancient or endangered forests.
On the chemical side, Changing Markets is encouraging brands to switch over to closed-loop production practices. These ensure all chemicals used in manufacturing are retrieved and pumped back into the system so they do less harm to factory workers and surrounding communities.
As of Changing Markets' industry report, 14 of the largest 100 fashion companies in the world have signed on to the group's road map and pledged to move toward more responsible. It's a start, but we clearly still have a long way to go.
"Overall there's never really been any work done on specific standards and certifications [for viscose] like there have been some for cotton, wool, and other fiber categories," she tells mbg. "It's kind of been each brand for yourself, each supplier for yourself... There's a lot of room for standardization and certification."
Viscose by any other name.
Another thing that's driving a disjointed industry (and a confusing shopping experience for consumers) is the fact that some sustainable viscose suppliers sell their yarns under different names to differentiate them from "dirty viscose."
Here are a few words you might see on a label that ultimately mean a product is made from some version of viscose:
- Rayon: This is another name for any cellulose-based fiber. Viscose and rayon are often used interchangeably, especially in the U.S.
- Modal: Modal is viscose that has been made using a closed-loop production process. This more sustainable process also tends to lead to slightly stronger, more durable fabrics.
- Lyocell: You can think of lyocell as one step up from modal (and two steps up from traditional viscose) from a sustainability standpoint. Not only is it closed-loop, but its processing also omits certain harmful chemicals altogether.
- Lenzing: Lenzing is a fiber production company based in Austria. They have long been a leader in the sustainable production of cellulose fibers, and they sell their Lenzing-branded yarns to many brands in the fashion space.
- Tencel: Tencel is Lenzing's trademarked version of lyocell or modal yarn (see where this gets confusing?). It's soft, lightweight, holds color well, and is especially popular for woven fabrics.
So, should you buy it?
Deciding whether to buy viscose over another fabric like cotton or recycled polyester is tough because there are always trade-offs.
While viscose typically takes less water and pesticides to grow than conventional cotton, it comes with more land use and deforestation concerns. And while it's not produced from petroleum like polyester, viscose can still contribute to environmental contamination for the reasons we've covered.
"There are so many factors in deciding whether a fiber is responsible," says Trunk. "You would have to look at every stage of the supply chain and make sure that not only the environmental concerns are addressed but also workers' rights, social impact, and so forth."
To make an informed decision, you'll have to consider what you value in a fabric and weigh the pros and cons of viscose:
- Holds color well
- Strong and long-lasting
- Wrinkles easily
- Shrinks in the wash
- Can contribute to deforestation
- Might have been created using toxic chemicals
- Heavily processed
Large companies that have committed to cleaning up their viscose supply chains.
Looking for a brand to buy viscose from? These are the 14 major companies that have committed to cleaning up their viscose supply chains using the Changing Markets framework:
Companies that already sell clothes made from responsibly produced viscose.
And here are a few brands that are currently selling garments made from Tencel:
The bottom line.
Viscose, also known as rayon, is a type of fabric made from the cellulose of plants. While it's made from natural materials, it needs to be heavily processed before it can become the soft, breathable fabric you see on shelves. Modal, lyocell, and Tencel are types of viscose that eco-conscious shoppers can look out for, as they tend to be produced more sustainably.
Emma Loewe is the Sustainability and Health Director at mindbodygreen and the author of Return to Nature: The New Science of How Natural Landscapes Restore Us. She is also the co-author of The Spirit Almanac: A Modern Guide To Ancient Self Care, which she wrote alongside Lindsay Kellner.
Emma received her B.A. in Environmental Science & Policy with a specialty in environmental communications from Duke University. In addition to penning over 1,000 mbg articles on topics from the water crisis in California to the rise of urban beekeeping, her work has appeared on Grist, Bloomberg News, Bustle, and Forbes. She's spoken about the intersection of self-care and sustainability on podcasts and live events alongside environmental thought leaders like Marci Zaroff, Gay Browne, and Summer Rayne Oakes.