4 Fabrics That Are Harming Our Planet + What To Look For Instead
The clothing industry is one of the most resource-intensive in the world. In order to keep up with global demand for cheap, trendy fast fashion, many companies are cycling through natural resources, water, and chemical dyes at an alarming rate. They are constantly pumping out clothes in new styles, colors, and cuts—most of which are destined to end up in landfill even after being donated.
You can vote for a more eco-friendly fashion industry by shopping secondhand, buying fewer pieces that are higher in quality, and looking for low-impact, biodegradable fabrics when you can.
Fabrics to avoid if you're trying to lessen your environmental impact.
While there are pluses and minuses to every fabric, these four are considered some of the most damaging to environmental health:
Nylon is a synthetic fabric manufactured using an energy-intensive process that turns petroleum into a type of stretchy plastic. It can be treated with formaldehyde-based residues1 to prevent shrinkage and does not biodegrade, though some companies are working on ways to recycle it into new garments.
Polyester is another petroleum-based fabric that does not easily biodegrade. Tiny beads of microplastics can also shed from synthetic clothing like polyester2 in the washing machine and eventually make their way into our oceans.
Rayon, also known as viscose, is a semi-synthetic fiber made from wood pulp. Though it is extracted from quick-to-grow trees like eucalyptus and beech, the process to turn it into a soft fabric is water- and chemical-intensive.
"Even though cotton is a natural, biodegradable fabric, it's often harvested using pesticides, unless it's organic," says Podilla. "Tons and tons of water are also needed to grow enough cotton for one T-shirt."
Eco-friendly fabrics to check out instead.
Pro tip: One of the first ways to determine if a garment is eco-friendly is by touching it and rubbing your fingertips together. If it's made of natural fabrics, you'll find that a little bit of residue travels from the clothes onto your fingers. The next thing you should do is look at the label. Clothing companies are required to disclose the materials in their products, so look out for these safer, greener names.
Tencel is a man-made fabric harvested from the natural cellulose material found in wood pulp. Unlike rayon, though, it's produced using a closed-loop process that recycles water and solvents to make future garments. Depending on the chemicals it is treated with, Tencel is biodegradable.
Modal is a semi-synthetic fiber made of pulp from beechwood trees. It, too, is produced in a closed-loop system that emits fewer harmful byproducts into the environment.
Cupro is a lesser-known soft fabric derived from linter—the fibers that stick to the seeds of a cotton plant after it's been ginned. Once processed, this cotton waste has a similar feel to silk.
Organic cotton is produced without the use of pesticides or chemicals. Though it requires the same amount of water and labor as its conventional counterpart, organic cotton is biodegradable.
Hanna Baror-Padilla is an eco-fashion expert and the founder of Sotela—a responsibly made clothing line.