As depression affects 1 in 5 people at some point in their lives, chances are you know someone who is currently living with the illness, or you will know someone in the future. As their friend or loved one, it’s natural to feel powerless, frustrated, anxious, confused, conflicted, defeated, and unequipped. To help navigate the foggy journey that it is, here are a few Do’s and Don'ts for supporting someone who is depressed.
1. DO listen without judgment.
Make space for your friend or loved one to talk about their experience. Let them know "I'm here to listen" or "I want to better understand what you're going through right now" and "I'm here for you despite what depression might be telling you."
We often feel compelled to jump in or say something to fix things or change the subject. Try to refrain from those urges, and give your friend or loved one some judgment-free airtime without offering a "solution."
2. DO express empathy, encouragement, and support.
When you do respond, do so in a way that lets them know you're listening. Expressing empathy is letting them know you have an idea what they're feeling. For example, you can try saying something like, "I’m really hearing how stuck /lost /paralyzed /defeated /dejected /wounded /broken you’re feeling right now."
By letting someone who is depressed know you have some idea of the magnitude of their pain, you can help them feel understood, supported, and validated. It's also important to let them know you care and are here for them. For example, it can be helpful to say something like, "I’m here to support you. If you can envision a role you’d like me to play in this challenging time, let me know and I’ll do my best to fulfill that. If not, know that I’m here and I’m not going anywhere."
3. DO help them find resources.
Navigating the plethora of health care degrees—GPs, NDs, LPCs, LCSWs and LMHCs—can be overwhelming for those of us who don’t identify as depressed. Imagine how it feels for someone who’s functioning at 20% with little motivation or concentration!
Connecting with mental health professionals can be an ominous task. Help make things possibly less daunting for your loved one by identifying resources in their area. A good place to start? Their GP or ND. Other potentially beneficial resources include a psychotherapist, depression support group, and your local crisis line.
4. DO know your role and have realistic expectations for yourself within it.
What would you expect from your friend if you were going through a rough time? Have similar expectations for yourself in this position. You are not their therapist, psychiatrist, or doctor. If you're unsure as to what they expect from you, ask. Set realistic guidelines (e.g. "I'm here for you, but sometimes I might be busy and not be able to respond to your calls or texts until later on. It doesn't mean I don't care, despite what depression might tell you.") Be kind to yourself and acknowledge your limitations.
1. DON'T say “Be strong,” “Don’t cry,” “Focus on the positives!” or “Be grateful for what you have.”
In our society, sadness, tears, and depression are often associated with “weakness” or instability. Emotionality is not valued, and thus feelings associated with depression are often enveloped in choking layers of shame and anxiety. Telling someone not to feel depressed, or that they should “think positively” will not make them feel better. In actuality, it will likely make them feel worse—weak, ashamed for feeling sad, and less able to feel safe in your relationship. Make space for emotions; don't try to limit them or contain them.
2. DON'T be afraid to ask if they're suicidal.
Not everyone who's depressed is suicidal, but almost every person who completes suicide has experience with depression. People who are considering ending their lives will often make ominous statements like, "What's the point [in living]?" or "Pretty soon you won't have to put up with this any longer."
They also might start giving away possessions, get their will in order, contact people to "make amends," or appear suddenly calm, given their previous behavior. There is a common misconception that if we ask someone if they've been thinking about suicide, we might put the idea in their head or drive them to do it. This is untrue. Often, being asked causes great relief for a person who's been thinking about it.
You can try saying something like this, "It’s not uncommon for people to have suicidal thoughts when experiencing depression. Have you been thinking about killing yourself?"
If the answer is yes, remind them that suicidal thoughts are a natural coping mechanism (they provide a way to "stop the pain,") but suicide will not make things better. You are likely not a trained professional, so stay with them while you encourage them to call a suicide hotline for proper assessment and resources. You can read more about this here.
3. DON'T minimize what they're going through, don't tell them there are starving children in Africa, and don't tell them you know exactly how they feel.
Even if you’ve had firsthand experience with depression, everyone’s experience is different. Thus, stick with empathizing ("What you're going through sounds really painful") rather than identifying ("I know exactly how you feel"). It can help to share your own experience, but make sure they're aware you're not implying it's the same situation. Similarly, don't minimize what they're going through by telling them things like "It could be worse," or "Come on, things aren't that bad. At least you have your job/ family/ health, etc." That will just lead to their feeling misunderstood, frustrated, and ashamed.
4. DON'T Go MIA or give up on them (without talking to them about it first).
It’s natural to feel frustrated, powerless, and fed up in relationships in which your friend or loved one is living with depression. You might believe that you can see “an answer” so clearly, or a contributing factor. Maybe you're tired of them always bailing on plans or never calling. These are all common experiences to supporting someone with depression.
If you've reached your limits, talk to them about it. Say something like, "I really want to be here to support you, but I'm feeling powerless/ unequipped/ stretched. I don't want to lose this relationship. How can we find a way to make things more sustainable?" Often, if you're feeling exhausted in supporting them, it's a sign they don't have enough other supports in their life. Help them connect to resources so you're not the sole support.
Finally, and most importantly,
5. DON'T neglect yourself in the process!
Supporting others can be mentally and emotionally exhausting. Often, we find ourselves focusing all our energy on our friend or loved one, and we wind up neglecting ourselves in the process. Especially for those whose partners, close friends, or family members are experiencing depression, I encourage you to seek your own therapy. Be kind to yourself—Make sure you're practicing self-care and self-compassion, and are getting the support you need from others as well.