In Ayurveda, all matter is believed to be made up of the five elements: earth, fire, water, air, and ether. This matter manifests within the human body as three doshas (vata, pitta, and kapha), which are essentially three different body types or energies. Most people have a little bit of each one of these energies within them, but by determining what your prominent dosha is, you can learn a lot about how to treat your body and maintain your well-being.
Simply put, ailments (from stress to acne to stomachaches) originate when there is imbalance in these principles within your body and it is likely that the ailment you experience is due to an imbalance in the basic principle type that governs your individual constitution. All Ayurvedic treatments work by bringing these principles back into balance. The first step is, of course, figuring out what your dosha is. You can find a link to a quiz here, and you can read up on the qualities and guidelines below and see what you relate to most.