How you motivate yourself may determine how successful you are at a given task, according to a fascinating new study that suggests people who intrinsically desire to perform a job ultimately do it better, and for longer periods of time.
To determine the effects of different motivators, researchers from Swarthmore and Yale analyzed data culled from more than 11,000 cadets at the United States Military Academy at West Point. They wanted to find out whether external motives — which they call instrumental motives — result in long-term success, or whether intrinsic motives — what they call internal motives — are better predictors of achievement. For example, an instrumental motive would be making more money later in life thanks to a West Point pedigree, while an internal motive might be something like a strong sense of duty to one's country.
The results probably won't surprise you: cadets who had strong internal motives were more likely to graduate and become commissioned officers. But, curiously, cadets who had both strong internal and instrumental motives were worse in every category measured compared with cadets who had only internal motives.
The New York Times has more on the implications of these results: