Autism has long perplexed medical professionals and parents, partly because it lacks an effective treatment and partly because its causes are uncertain. A study published in the March 27 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine may shed light on the latter; researchers found that the brains of autistic children who died young had patches of disorganization in the cortex, which suggests that autism begins developing in the womb.
To obtain their results, researchers compared the brains of 11 autistic children who died between the ages of 2 and 15 to 11 children who didn't have the condition. Ten of the 11 children with autism had distinct — and similar — patches of neural disorganization, compared with only one of the 11 children without autism. The study's authors say that the type of neural disorganization observed suggests that it occurred during prenatal development. NPR has an explanation of how this disorganization looks in children with autism: